AP Human Geography Ch. 2

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terms for ch 2 (any davis people at north springs can use this for the quiz tomorrow)

acculturation

the adoption of the behavior patterns of the surrounding culture

artifact

a man-made object taken as a whole

assimilation

the process of assimilating new ideas into an existing cognitive structure

cultural barrier

Prevailing cultural attitude rendering certain innovations, ideas or practices unacceptable or unadoptable in that particular culture.

cultural convergence

the contact and interaction of one culture with another

cultural divergence

the restriction of a culture from outside cultural influences

cultural ecology

Geographic approach that emphasizes human-environment relationships.

cultural identity

Ones belief in belonging to a group or certain cultural aspect

cultural integration

The close relationships among various elements of a cultural system

cultural landscape

the visible imprint of human activity and culture on the landscape

culture

the attitudes and behavior that are characteristic of a particular social group or organization

culture complex

A related set of culture traits descriptive of one aspect of a society's behavior or activity (may be assoc. with religious beliefs or business practices).

culture hearth

a center where cultures developed and from which ideas and traditions spread outward

culture realm

A cluster of regions in which related culture systems prevail.

culture region

an area in which people have many shared culture traits (formal, vernacular, functional)

culture system

A collection of interacting elements taken together shape a group's collective identity. Includes traits, territorial affiliation, shared history, and more complex elements, like language

culture trait

A single element of normal practice in a culture, such as the wearing of a turban.

diffusion

the spread of social institutions (and myths and skills) from one society to another

diffusion barrier

stops cultural exchange

diffusion types

EXPANSION- idea or innovation
spreads outward from the hearth
HIERARCHIAL- spreads to most linked people or places first.
-CONTAGIOUS- spreads adjacently
-STIMULUS- idea promotes a local experiment or change in the way people do things.
RELOCATION- movement of individuals who
carry an idea or innovation with them to a new, perhaps distant location.

environmental determinism

the view that the natural environment has a controlling influence over various aspects of human life including cultural development

expansion diffusion

The spread of a feature or trend among people from one area to another in a snowballing process.

hunter-gather

a person who meets needs by hunting animals and gathering plants

independent invention

the term for a trait with many cultural hearths that developed independent of each other

innovation

the act of starting something for the first time

mentifact

The central, enduring elements of a culture expressing its values and beliefs

multilinear evolution

used to explain common characteristics of widely separated cultures developed under similar ecological circumstances

possibilism

The theory that the physical environment may set limits on human actions, but people have the ability to adjust to the physical environment and choose a course of action from many alternatives.

sequent occupance

the notion that successive societies leave their cultural imprints on a place, each contributing to the cumulative cultural landscape

sociofact

The institutions and links between individuals and groups that unit a culture, including family structure and political, educational and religious institutions.

syncretism

the fusion of originally different inflected forms (resulting in a reduction in the use of inflections)

technological subsystem

The complex of material objects together with the techniques of their use by means of which people carry out purposeful and productive tasks.

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