Unit 3 Vocab

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umm gonna try looking at the tile, yeah, see what it is, pretty obvious huh, oh yeah you see it

Eukaryote

unicellular or multicellular organisms, such as yeast, plants and animals, composed of eukaryotic cells, which contain a true nucleus and membrane-bound organelles Ex. Bread Yeast

Prokaryote

unicellular organisms, such as bacteria, each of which is composed of a prokaryotic cell. Prokayotic cells lack internal membrane-bound structures Ex. Bacteria

Selectively Permeable

a property of cell membranes that allows some substances to pass through, while others cannot Ex. Bouncers only let certain people in

Diffusion

process by which molecules tend to move from an area where they are more concentrated to an area where they are less concentrated Ex. When molecules move to a less concentrated area

Facilitated Diffusion

movement of specific molecules across cell membranes through protein channels Ex. Certain people going backstage at a concert

Isotonic

describes a solution whose solute concentration is equal to the solute concentration inside a cell Ex. Normal looking blood cell

Hypertonic

(of a solution) having a higher osmotic pressure than a comparison solution Ex. Blood cell on crack; shriveled

Hypotonic

(of a solution) having a lower osmotic pressure than a comparison solution Ex. Fat blood cell

Osmotic Pressure

(physical chemistry) the pressure exerted by a solution necessary to prevent osmosis into that solution when it is separated from the pure solvent by a semipermeable membrane Ex. an egg in karo syrup

Homeostasis

metabolic equilibrium actively maintained by several complex biological mechanisms that operate via the autonomic nervous system to offset disrupting changes Ex. Body temperature regulation

Receptor

an organ having nerve endings (in the skin or viscera or eye or ear or nose or mouth) that respond to stimulation Ex. Organs that can feel peoples touch

Adenosine Triphosphate

a nucleotide derived from adenosine that occurs in muscle tissue Ex. Red bull for cells

Pigment

chemical compound that determines a substance's color Ex. Natural dye

Chlorophyll

any of a group of green pigments found in photosynthetic organisms Ex. what makes plants green

Thylakoid

A flattened membrane sac inside the chloroplast, used to convert light energy into chemical energy. Ex. responsible for photosynthesis

Photosystem

in the thylakoid membranes of chloroplasts, a cluster of chlorophyll and other pigment molecules that harvest light energy for the light reactions of photosynthesis Ex. Found in the thylakoid

Electron Transport Chain

A sequence of electron carrier molecules (membrane proteins) that shuttle electrons during the redox reactions that release energy used to make ATP.Ex. kind of like a fedex

ATP Synthase

large protein that uses energy from H+ ions to bind ADP and a phosphate group together to produce ATP Ex. Helps adp and phosphate group get along

Calvin Cycle

reactions of photosynthesis in which energy from ATP and NADPH is used to build high-energy compounds such as sugars Ex. Exxon plant in photosynthesis

Cellular Respiration

the metabolic processes whereby certain organisms obtain energy from organic molecules Ex. Carnivorous organisms

Aerobic

Depending on free oxygen or air Ex. Human being

Anaerobic

living or active in the absence of free oxygen Ex. Aliens

Glycolysis

a metabolic process that breaks down carbohydrates and sugars through a series of reactions to either pyruvic acid or lactic acid and release energy for the body in the form of ATP Ex. make the Red bull

Krebs Cycle

in all plants and animals: a series of enzymatic reactions in mitochondria involving oxidative metabolism of acetyl compounds to produce high-energy phosphate compounds that are the source of cellular energy Ex. Keep the body running

Matrix

mold used in the production of phonograph records, type, or other relief surface Ex. storage of cells

Chromosome

a threadlike body in the cell nucleus that carries the genes in a linear order Ex. like a key to the body

Cell Cycle

series of events that cells go through as they grow and divide Ex. the life of a cell

Interphase

the period of the cell cycle during which the nucleus is not undergoing division, typically occurring between mitotic or meiotic divisions Ex. when the cell is to lazy to multiply

Centromere

a specialized condensed region of each chromosome that appears during mitosis where the chromatids are held together to form an X shape Ex. Cool shape during mitosis

Growth Factor

a protein that is involved in cell differentiation and growth Ex. its like veggies for children

Apoptosis

a type of cell death in which the cell uses specialized cellular machinery to kill itself Ex. Very sad cell, R.I. P

Cancer

any malignant growth or tumor caused by abnormal and uncontrolled cell division Ex. Tumor caused by cells making to many babies

Tumor

an abnormal mass of tissue that can live and reproduce itself, but performs no service to the body Ex. when cells have to many babies

Differentation

a progressive change from which a permanently more mature or advanced state results Ex. When cells grow up

Totipotents

At this point the cells have the ability to become anything from a complete human being to any type of tissue cell Ex. A choice all cells go through

Blastocyst

A fluid-filled sphere formed about 5 days after fertilization of an ovum that is made up of an outer ring of cells and inner cell mass. THis is the structure that implants in the endometrium of the uterus. Ex. Pregancy stuff

Pluripotent

Describing a cell that can give rise to many, but not all, parts of an organism. Ex. a cell that can raise an army

Stem Cell

an undifferentiated cell whose daughter cells may differentiate into other cell types (such as blood cells) Ex. When a mother cell has wierd babies

Multipotent

A stem cell that does not have a lot of diversity but can make themselves or become more specialized. Ex. Freaky cell that can multiply itself

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