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In order to test whether newborns can visually discriminate between various shapes and colors, psychologists have made use of the process of

Habituation

A mother who is slow in responding to her infant's cries of distress is most likely to encourage

insecure attachment

At 12 months of age Jeremy shows no more desire to be held by his own parents that by strangers. His behavior best illustrates

Insecure attachment

In order to qualify for the office manager's job, 55 yr old Mariel's must take a series of psychological tests. Her performance on the test of ___ is likely to be poorer than if she had taken if as a 25 yr old

abstract reasoning

The acquisition of a sense of object permanence is most closely associated with the development of

stranger anxiety

Critics of Kohlberg's theory of moral development have suggested the post conventional morality is more characteristic of

men than women

The ratio of males to females first begins declining during

prenatal development

Henry disapproves of stealing jelly beans his sister's Easter basket because he thinks his mother will spank him if he does. Henry best represents an ___ morality

preconventional

Dr. Matsuko's major research interest is the long-term effects of child-rearing practices on the psychological adjustment of offspring. It is most likely that Dr. Matsuko is an ____ psychologist

developmental

Children's sense that their parents are trustworthy and dependable is most indicative of

secure attachment

Aaron cried when his mother left him in the infant nursery at church, and he was not reassured or conformed by her return a short while later. Aaron showed signs of

insecure attachment

Even though Alicia was busy playing when her mother came to pick her up from her babysitter, she quickly ran to her mother, gesturing to be held Alicia most clearly showed signs of

secure attachment

If research suggested that a pregnant mother's use of an artificial sweetener cause harm to the fetus, the artificial sweetener would be considered a

teratogen

Parents who are demanding and yet sensitively responsive to their children are said to be

authoritative

During the course of successful prenatal development, a human organism begins as an

zygote and finally develops into a fetus

Preschoolers' acquisition of a theory of mind suggest that Piaget overestimated young children's

egocentrism

Instead of happily exploring the attractive toys located in the pediatrician's waiting room, little Sandra tenaciously clings on her mother's skin. Sandra most clearly shows signs of

insecure attachment

The rooting reflex refers to a baby's tendency to

open the mouth in search of a nipple when touched on the cheek

Lolita vacillates between acting rebellious toward her parents and high school teachers and behaving with compliance and respect. Erikson would have suggested that Lolita's inconsistency illustrates

role confusion

The symptoms of fetal alcohol syndrome demonstrates that alcohol is a

teratogen

Mr. and Mrs. Batson can't wait to begin toilet training ther year old daughter. The Batsons most clearly need to be informed about the importance of

maturation

Mrs. Pearson cut Judy's hot dog into 8 pieces and Sylvia's into 6. Sylvia cried because she felt she wasn't getting as much hot dog as Judy. Piaget would say that Sylvia doesn't understand the principle of

conservation

Year old Eunice is not overly fearful of strangers but she clearly prefers being held by her mother than anyone else. Her behavior best illustrates

secure attachment

Killing one person in order to save 5 by throwing a switch that diverts a runaway trolley is judged as more morally acceptable than killing one person in order to save 5 by pushing a stranger directly into the path of the oncoming trolley. This best illustrates that moral judgments may reflect

gut-level intuitions

As boys with explosive tempers grow older, they are especially more likely to have difficulty maintaining good jobs and happy marriages. This fact is most relevant to the issue of

stability and change

The best evidence that 4 month old infants possess visual memory capabilities comes from research on

habituation

Which of the following factors is most important for the development of positive emotional bonds between human infants and their mothers

familiarity

One of the most consistently damaging teratogens is

alcohol

Lambs raised in the barn where the cattle are kept tend to stay near the cattle when subsequently placed in open pasture. This best illustrates a process known as

imprinting

In formulating his theory of psychosocial development, Erikson would have suggested that authoritarian parents are likely to inhibit young children's

autonomy and initiative

Marriage bonds are especially likely to endure when members of a couple

engage in more positive than negative interactions with each other

The first ejaculation is to an adolescent boy as ___ is to an adolescent girl

menarche

For Regis to think it's wrong to drive over the speed limit simply because he might get punished for doing so is demonstrating Kohlberg's ___ stage of morality

Preconventional

Adjusting current schemas to make sense of new information is called

accomodation

In recognizing the inaccuracies of one ethnic stereotypes and revising his or her beliefs, an individual most clearly illustrates the process of

accomodation

Research on the elderly has shown that

they become increasingly prone to car accidents

When joan touched her infant's cheek, he turned his head toward the side that was touched and opened his mouth. Joan was eliciting

rooting reflex

The powerful survival impulse that leads infants to seek closeness to their caregivers is called

attachment

Mr. Johnson spends time each day caressing and rocking her infant daughter. This time together should serve most directly to promote

secure attachment

Erik Erikson suggested that children with a secure attachment to their parents are especially likely to experience

basic trust

Habituation refers to the

decreasing responsiveness to a stimulus to which one is repeatedly exposed

Interpreting new experiences in terms of existing schemas is called

assimilation

Dr. Ensing studies the reactions of very young children who are briefly separated from their mothers while in an unfamiliar setting. It is most likely that Dr. Ensing is conducting research on

attachment

A post conventional level of morality is most likely to be found in cultures that value

individualism

Two year old anna perceives her parents as cold and rejecting. This is most indicative of

insecure attachment

Edith abuses her 3yrold and 1yrold daughters. Her behavior is most likely related to a lack of

an early and secure attachment to her own parents

There is very little relationship between the age of an adult and his or her

level of life satisfaction

3 yr old Zara calls all four legged animals kittens. Her tendency to fit all four legged animals into her existing conception of a kitten illustrates the process of

assimilation

When 1 yr old Andrea tries to talk, her mother talks back when she smiles her mother smiles in return. These maternal reactions are most relevant to Andrea's development of

secure attachment

Questions about the extent to which secure attachments are influenced by infant temperament or by responsive parenting are most directly relevant to the issue of

nature or nuture

The Russian psychologist Vygotsky suggested that children's ability to solve problems is enhanced by

inner speech

According to Piaget's theory, during the concrete operational stages, a child is still unlikely to demonstrate

the ability to think hypothetically

18 month old justin follows his mother around the house, clinging tightly to her when he is frightened. this is

attachment behavior

Haidt's social intuitionist account highlights the impact of automatic gut level feelings on

moral judgement

It is difficult to successfully train many children to walk before they are 10 months old this is because of

maturation

The 1st time 4 yr old Sarah saw her older brother play the flute, she thought it was a large whistle. Sarah understanding best illustrates

assimulation

Vincent's ability to reason hypothetically in his geometry class indicates that he is in the ___ stage

formal operational

Fred has no meaningful occupational goals and has switched college majors several times. Erikson would have suggested that Fred lacks

identity

Identical twins with similar values and preferences are not very strongly attracted to one another's fiances. This fact has been used to suggest that romantic attraction is

chance encounters

Newborn infants typically prefer their mother's voice over father's because

they become familiar with their mother's voice before they are born

14 yr old Lisa was asked what would happen if everyone in the world suddenly went blind. She responded those who had previously been blind would become leaders. Lisa's answer indicates she is in the ___ stage of development

formal operational

Babies who are unable to predict how their parents will react to their cries for care and attention are especially likely to show signs of

insecure attachment

Researchers have sneakily dabbed rouge on young children's noses in order to study the developmental beginnings of

self awareness

According to Erikson, committing oneself to meaningful social roles would be most indicative of the attachment of

identity

Piaget is best known for his interest in the process of ___ development

cognitive

Puberty is most closely related to the onset of

menarche

if youre really concerned about the rights and dignity of women how can you justify buying pornographic magazines? Yigal's question indicates that he is in the ___ stage of development

formal operational

Sierra who is a heroin addict , age 28 is pregnant. Her baby will be born

a heroin addict

Despite huge legal costs and social disapproval, Mr. Lambers refuses to pay income taxes because his conscience will not allow him to support a government that spends billions of $ on military weopons. Mr. Lambers' reasoning best illustrates Kohlberg's ____ stage

postconventional

For several months following a sudden and unexpected divorce, Henry is excessively preoccupied with thoughts of his ex wife His reaction resulted form the disruption of

attachment

Young children typically try to stay close to their parents when they are in an unfamiliar setting. This best illustrates

attachement

Formal operational thought is most associated with

fluid intelligence

An impaired theory of mind most closely associated with

autism

Providing children with a safe haven in times of stress contributes most directly to

secure attachment

Menopause is associated with a reduction of

estrogen

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