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Phrenologist

The person most likely to suggest that the shape of a person's skull indicates the extent to which that individual is argumentative and aggressive

Franz Joseph Gall

Most likely to claim that a slight protrusion in a certain region of someone's skull indicated that the individual had an optimistic personality

The body's chemistry and behavior

A biological psychologist would be most interested in the relationship between

Psychiatrist

A medical doctor who specializes in the diagnosis and treatment of mental disorders; can prescribe medication

Biological psychologist

studies every aspect of behavior and mental processes; link between psychology and biology; want to understand sleep, hunger, sex, stress, disease and depression

Neurons

dendrites are branching extentions of _______

Axon

the extension of a neuron, ending in branching terminal fibers, through which messages pass to other neurons or to muscles or glands.

Dendrite-Soma-Axon-Synapse-Dendrite

An electrical signal within a single neuron travels from _______

Myelin Sheath

a layer of fatty tissue segmentally encasing the fibers of many neurons; enables vastly greater transmission speed of neural impulses as the impulse hops from one node to the next

Synapse

the junction between two neurons (axon-to-dendrite) or between a neuron and a muscle

Neurotransmitter

chemical messengers that traverse the synaptic gaps between neurons

Reuptake

reabsorption of a neurotransmitter by the presynaptic terminal

There are more Excitatory Inputs than Inhibitory Inputs

A neuron will generate action potentials more often when

away from; towards

An axon transmits messages _____ the soma and a dendrite transmits messages ______ the soma

Action Potential

The firing of a neuron. Occurs when charge inside neuron becomes more positive than charge outside.

Threshold

the level of stimulation required to trigger a neural impulse.

All or none

referring to the fact that a neuron either fires completely or does not fire at all

Polorized with positive ions outside and negative ions inside

In a resting state, the axon is

Depolorized when positive atoms are admitted

During action potiential, the electrical state of the axon becomes

Agonist

a drug that mimics a certain neurotransmitter

antagonist

drug which blocks the activity of neurotransmitters

Number of times a neuron fires

A strong stimulus can increase the

Serotonin;winter

The neurotransmitter _____ is most likely to be low during ________ (multiple choice)

Dopamine

neurotransmitter that influences voluntary movement, attention, alertness; lack of is linked with Parkinson's disease; too much is linked with Schizophrenia

Acetylcholin

neurotransmitter controlling muscle contraction and movement, learning, memory; lack of is linked with Alzheimer's disease

Norepinephrine

neurotransmitter that helps control alertness and arousal; lack of linked to depression

Endorphines

"morphine within" natural opiatelike neurotransmitters linked to pain control and to pleasure

Glutamate

a major excitatory neurotransmitter involved in information transmission throughout the brain and memory; Oversupply of is linked to migranes and seizures

GABA

major inhibitory neurotransmitter; lack of is linked to seizures, tremors, and insomnia

Hypothalamus

limbic system component that regulates hunger, body temperature and other functions

Acetylcholin antagonist

Botox injections smooth facial wrinkles because botulin is a(n)

Central Nervous System

The brain and spinal cord

Peripheral Nervous System

the sensory and motor neurons that connect the central nervous system to the rest of the body

Parasympathetic Nervous System

The division of the autonomic nervous system known as the 'resting and digesting' system. It causes a general decrease in body activities such as heart rate, respiratory rate, and blood pressure; increase in digestion

Sympathetic Nervous System

The division of the autonomic nervous system that mobilizes the body's resources during stress and emergencies, preparing the body for action.

Somatic Nervous System

the division of the peripheral nervous system that controls the body's skeletal muscles

Reflex

a simple, automatic, inborn response to a sensory stimulus, such as the knee-jerk response

Neural Networks

interconnected neural cells; with experience, networks can learn, as feedback strengthens or inhibits connections that produce certain results; in the Central Nervous System

Autonomic Nervous System

the part of the nervous system of vertebrates that controls involuntary actions of the smooth muscles and heart and glands

PET scan

a visual display of brain activity that detects where a radioactive form of glucose goes while the brain performs a given task

MRI

a technique that uses magnetic fields and radio waves to produce computer-generated images that distinguish among different types of soft tissue; allows us to see structures within the brain

CT scan

a series of x-ray photographs taken from different angles and combined by computer into a composite representation of a slice through the body.

hormone

chemical messenger that is secreted by an endocrine gland carried by the bloodstream; slow-acting but long-lasting

Left hemisphere

half of the brain generally specializes in analysis, calculation, problem solving, verbal communication, interpretation, language, reading & writing. It receives info and controls opposite of the body.

Right hemisphere

half of the brain specializes in perception of physical environment, art, nonverbal communication, music & spiritual aspects. It receives information from and controls the opposite side of the body.

Corpus callosum

the fibers that connect the right and left hemispheres, enabling them to communicate

Wernicke's area

controls language reception-a brain area involved in language comprehension and expression;in the left temporal lobe

Broca's area

controls language expression-an aread of the frontal, in the left hemisphere, that directs the muscle movements involved in speech

Plasticity

the brain's capacity for modification, as evident in brain reorganization following damage (especially in children) and in experiments on the effects of experience on brain development

Visual cortex

The region of the occipital lobes in which visual information is processed.

Temporal Lobe

that part of the cerebral cortex in either hemisphere of the brain lying inside the temples of the head; lies below the frontal lobe, responsible for hearing, taste, and smell

aphasia

inability to use or understand language (spoken or written) because of a brain lesion

Cerebral cortex

the intricate fabric of interconnected neural cells that covers the cerebral hemispheres; the body's ultimate control and information-processing center

Association areas

areas of the cerebral cortex that are not involved in primary motor or sensory functions; rather, they are involved in higher mental functions such as learning, remembering, thinking, and speaking

limbic system

a doughnut-shaped system of neural structures at the border of the brainstem and cerebral hemispheres; associated with emotions such as fear and aggression and drives such as those for food and sex. Includes the hippocampus, amygdala, and hypothalamus.

Hippocampus

a neural center located in the limbic system that helps process explicit memories for storage

Amygdala

two almond-shaped neural clusters that are components of the limbic system and are linked to emotion

Phineas Gage

railroad worker who survived a severe brain injury that dramatically changed his personality and behavior; case played a role in the development of the understanding of the localization of brain function

Serotonin

neurotransmitter that affects mood, sleep, hunger, and arousal; lack of is linked to depression

EEG

a graphical record of electrical activity of the brain

Alcoholism

Inadequate dopamine may contribute to

Frontal Lobe

that part of the cerebral cortex in either hemisphere of the brain lying directly behind the forehead; associated with movement, speech, and impulsive behavior

Parietal Lobe

that part of the cerebral cortex in either hemisphere of the brain lying below the crown of the head, posterior to the frontal lobe; responsible for sensations such as pain, temperature, and touch

Occipital Lobe

that part of the cerebral cortex in either hemisphere of the brain lying in the back of the head, posterior to the parietal and temporal lobes; responsible for vision

Sensory neurons and Motor neurons

The peripheral nervous system is made up of

CT scan

What is the best for finding a lesion?

Lesion

any destruction or damage to brain tissue

Sensory neuron-Interneuron- Motor neuron

Which is the correct sequence in the transmission of a simple reflex

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