WHO: Arab Nomads
WHAT: Arab nomads who organized themselves into groups or clans.
WHEN: Around 600's ACE
WHERE: Middle East (Arabian peninsula)
WHY: Provided security for the Arab people by forming clans. Where Muslim empire started. They were the predecessors of the Umayidds, and the culture before Muhammad.
WHO: Islamic People, Arabs, Middle Easterners, African nations (some), Mallacans, Muhammad, Abu Bakr, Seljuk Turks, Sunni, Sh'ite, Umayidd, Abbasid, etc.
WHAT: A religion
WHERE: Middle East (dominantly Arabia), Spread to Spain, Africa, India (attempted) and southern Asian countries (Malacca).
WHY: One of the world's major religions that united the people of the Middle East through Muhammad's teachings and works. Created a strong Islamic empire that separated into Sunni and Shi'te people, which sparingly ruled the other. Spread to many regions, influence many regions (Africa, Asia, Europe), and caused many battles and conflicts (Crusades over Jerusalem, for example).
WHO: Saudi Arabians that Lived in Mecca, Umayidds, Muhammad.
WHAT: The religious central city for Islam.
WHEN: 500's ACE onward
WHERE: Saudi Arabia
WHY: Where the Umayidd's criticized Muhammad, up to the point that the latter had to escape to Medina. Was invaded by Muhammad and conquered, but open to anyone who revoked their original polytheistic religion.
WHO: Saudi Arabians
WHAT: A religious group originally believing in polytheism in Saudi Arabia.
WHEN: 500's ACE onward
WHERE: Saudi Arabia, Mecca, spread to Africa, Asia, and Spain.
WHY: Opposing for to Muhammad during the rise of Islam. Later would become Sunni Muslims due to conflicts over who should become a later caliphs (in the Umayidd's case, it should be the strongest to rule). Responsible for the spread of Islam far beyond the Middle East.
WHAT: The religious holybook of Islam
WHEN: 600's ACE
WHERE: Saudi Arabia
WHY: Originally a verbal message from the Angel Gabriel to Muhammad, it was the basis for the Muslim lifestyle and code of life that not only united the people but also provided a moral law.
WHAT: An office held by a caliph (a successor of Muhammad who ruled Islamic entities, but was not a prophet). Its like a dynasty, except instead of family rule, its a specific belief rules...
WHEN: 600's ACE (632 onward, as Muhammad died at this time and a new leader was to be chosen).
WHERE: Saudi Arabia at the time.
WHY: This entity ruled over Islam like a Pope of the Middle Ages. It was due to this office that Muslims were seperated into Sunnis and Sh'ites, as one believed that the most powerful should become a caliph, while the other believed that a descendant of Muhammad should.
WHO: Umayidds, Arabians
WHAT: A branch of Islam that believed that the most powerful Islamic entity should appoint a caliph
WHEN: around mid 600's ACE
WHERE: Saudi Arabia, expand with Umayidds.
WHY: Sunnis gained the first rule of Islam as the Umayidd empire. Invaded other political states for wealth, and eventually developed a system of taxing (Jizya) on those who weren't Muslim, but lived in Muslim grounds.
WHO: Saudi Arabians, expanded.
WHAT: A branch of Islam that believed that the descendant of Muhammad should be the caliph.
WHEN: around mid 600's ACE
WHERE: Saudi Arabia expanded.
WHY: Shi'ites were prosecuted by the Sunnis as the Umayidd imperium grew. However, due to uneven division of wealth and power, warriors, and shi'ites, tookover the Muslim empire again as the Abbasid empire.
WHO: Umayidds, Mawalis (Muslim converts), and Dhimmi's (non-Muslim people)
WHAT: A tax instituted on Mawalis and Dhimmis under Umayidd rule.
WHEN: Mid 600's ACE
WHERE: Saudi Arabia, conquered territories of Umayidd empire.
WHY: The Jizya was a strong source of income to the Muslims and control over the taxed. Allowed seperate faiths to exist under Islam.
WHO: Warriors, Arabians, Sh'ites
WHAT: An empire developed by Warriors and Shi'ites in response to inequalities given by the Umayidd empire (the Merv).
WHEN: 750 ACE
WHERE: Arabia, Northern Africa, Most of Spain
WHY: Overthrew the Umayidd rule and allowed more religious freedoms. Provided equal footing for Mawali people, expanded the merchant class, trade and such, as well as agricultural work. Improved art and culture. It created the first truly global civilization with its large connections. LITERATE! SAVED MANY WORKS OF OTHER CULTURES.
WHO: Abbasid people, sh'ites
WHAT: A city, almost a new political center for Islam, established by the Abbasid empire.
WHEN: Mid 700s ACE
WHERE: Arabia current day Iraq
WHY: Like constantinople; it was a large and powerful political center of the state, except this state was more theocratic.
WHO: Muslim people in the Middle East
WHAT: Following the conquering of Baghdad by the Persian Buyids, Seljuk Turks took the power.
WHEN: Mid 1050's ACE
WHERE: Middle East, Iraq
WHY: These people were Sunnis, and since they replaced the Sh'ite Abbasid empire, the whole view of the world changed again. They did however, manage to keep Byzantines from taking over Islamic land.
WHO: Muslims, Malaccans
WHAT: A type of Islam that taught strict interpretation of the religion, spirituality. In other words, they wanted direct union with god, denied pleasure, followed the five pillars strictly, etc.
WHEN: 1200s ACE?
WHERE: Middle East, Malacca?
WHY: Strict interpretation of the religion led to stronger views of the religion of Islamic societies, meaning that the Islam calphite would have more prominent rule.
WHO: Byzantine Empire, Western European Empire, Islamic Empire
WHAT: A series of expeditions launched in order to, at first take back the holy land of Jerusalem, than to conquer more land, than to retake the holy land again once they lost it to Salahadin, as well as a capture of Constantinople by the Western Europeans.
WHEN: Lat 1000's ACE... several centuries long
WHERE: First three crusades in the Middle East (objective), and the fourth one in Eastern Europe.
WHY: Provided the grounds of religious intolerance of Christianity and Islam that separated the regions strongly in the Middle Ages. To Europe, the people gained much technology, intelligence, and culture from the Muslims.
WHO: A people of North Africa
WHAT: North Africans who converted to Islam
WHEN: 1000's ACE
WHERE: Northern Africa
WHY: A people of North Africa that accepted Islam (when the Umayidd empire spread).
WHO: Muslims, Asians
WHAT: A state that converted into Islam.
WHEN: 13th century ACE?
WHERE: Malaysian peninsula
WHY: A port center that converted to Islam allowing much trade for Islamic people. Merchants helped spread Islam.
WHO: African people
WHAT: A state established by people who broke awaqy from Ghana. Islamic. Had juula/traders.
WHEN: 1200's ACE
WHERE: Africa (northern)
WHY: Built mosques and expanded Islam as the state was formed by breaking away from the state of Ghana.
WHAT: A state that broke away from Mali through its productive gold trade.
WHEN: 1370 ACE
WHERE: Northern Africa
WHY: A kingdom with a strong gold trade, built a unique brand of Islam that mixed beliefs of both Muslims and pagans (dhimmis in a sense), had less strict interpretation of Muslim law, and gave more rights to women. Merchant Muslims came here.
WHO: Africans, Muslims
WHAT: A state that rose to power through taxing salt and gold exchange
WHEN: 900s ACE
WHERE: Northern Africa
WHY: Another Muslim state that provided the basis of Mali and Songhay. Gold trade, taxing, and military support would be helpful to an Islamic empire, wouldn't it?
WHAT: Groups of people who didn't establish a location of their power... tribal nomads in a sense. Organized around family, had councils, little authority, and couldn't mobilize for war or create any construction or long distance trade relationships.
WHEN: pre 600s ACE
WHY: The separate people of Africa that, through Islam, were united into a common language and belief.
WHO: Byzantine people
WHAT: The political central of the Byzantine Empire
WHEN: 300s ACE
WHERE: Byzantine empire (in the east)
WHY: The capital of the byzantine empire that held the culture and Christian religion of the people. Housed a Greek language, much trade, and had strong military power.
WHO: Eastern European people, Greek Orthodox.
WHAT: An empire that was the remnants of the late Roman empire, following the fall of the latter in the classical era.
WHEN: 300s to 1000s ACE
WHERE: Eastern Europe
WHY: A major power of the Middle Ages as this empire held much military power that was used in wars during the crusades, for example, a massive area for the black death, religion of the Greek Orthodox people, in term causing the Great Schism, and so on.
WHO: Justinian, Western European figure
WHAT: A figure who attempted to reconquer western territory. Used Roman law to organize the Byzantine Empire and reduced confusion, yet failed to conquer Western lands of Europe, weakening the empire (politically and economically)
WHEN: 533 ACE
WHERE: Europe, East to West
WHY: Attempted to reunify the Byzantine people using old beliefs and conquer the west. Failing to do so allowed the Western Europeans to grow.
WHO: Byzantine people
WHAT: Religious controversy as the emperor attempted to suppress iconic images by destroying it.
WHERE: Byzantine Empire
WHY: Caused religious stir of Christianity, a good cause for the Schism.
WHO: Byzantine Eastern Orthodox Church and Western Europe Roman Catholic Church
WHAT: A split between the two churches of Eastern Orthodox and Roman Catholic induced by differences in the religions.
WHEN: 1054 ACE
WHY: Disagreements in the two churches in terms of papal attempts to interfere over icons, Charlemagne claiming to be the Roman emperor, religious art (Iconoclasm), Latin-Greek beliefs, the pope, and priests, caused a split between the Churches. Separated the two empires very greatly.
WHO: A people that overthrew the Byzantine Empire
WHAT: A people that overthrew a weakened Byzantine Empire and claimed Constantinople to be Istanbul. ISLAMIC. Pressure on Western Europe. Orthodox Christians now a minority.
WHEN: 1453 ACE
WHERE: Eastern Europe
WHY: Islamic power was grown here. A strong adversary to Islam, the Byzantine Empire, has fallen to the religion, and now Eastern Europe will be pressured.
WHAT: Seafaring warriors who pirated and traded with many European entities.
WHEN: 700s ACE
WHERE: Scandinavia, Northern Europe
WHY: A people who helped enhance the culture of Europe, though they did have much "exchange" of wealth.
WHO: Russian People, early
WHAT: Byzantine influence on Russian civilizations (originally animis tribes) as well as Scandinavian influence via trade led to the creation of this new society.
WHEN: 900s ACE?
WHERE: Eastern Europe/Eurasia
WHY: A civilization that lived based on Byzantine ideals, so that when the Byzantine empire fell, their legacy lived on. A trade route for Scandinavians
WHAT: A Kiev Rus' ruler who converted to Christianity on behalf of his people and forced conversions (chose to convert to reject the pope' power, be able to consume alcohol, and for the ceremonies).
WHEN: 980-1015 ACE
WHY: Accepted Byzantine beliefs and forced his people to do the same.
WHO: Mainly European (Western European only?). Japanese too, but check term "Heian"
WHAT: An economic system in which the manor, or the land of a lord, was worked by serfs (peasants). Vassals, or figures that worked for the lord but administered the serfs, were the inbetween. All of this created more individualized societies, where everyone lived on the manor, and life went by like so.
WHEN: 700s ACE
WHERE: Europe (Western mostly?)
WHY: This system provided the lifestyle (NOT ECONOMIC! ECONOMIC SENSE OF THIS SYSTEM IS FUEDALISM) for nobles, dukes (lords), vassals, knights, and serfs.
WHO: Europeans (mainly Western?)
WHAT: A lesser lord who manages the serfs and answers to a greater lord (Nobles, dukes).
WHERE: Europe, mainly western?
WHY: These people managed the serfs and answered to the nobles, meaning they did the actual managerial work while the greater lord attended to his own businesses.
WHO: Europeans (mainly western?)
WHAT: A land owned by a Noble/Lord that was used in Manorialism/Fuedalism.
WHEN: 700s ACE
WHERE: Europe (mainly western?)
WHY: The land on which manorialism and fuedalism worked; the basis for the economy and lifestyle of (western?) Europeans.
WHO: Europeans (western mainly?)
WHAT: A social system in which a king gives land to a noble, the noble has many vassals that manage knights and serfs, and the serfs work the land.
WHEN: 800s ACE
WHERE: Europe (mainly western)
WHY: This system not only provided the foundation of European lifestyle, but also drew economic guidelines. Serfs gained some wealth as well as shelter and protection in return for working the land, the vassals managed the serfs and gained more, and the nobles gained the most out of the land (who still weren't as powerful as the king/ruling figure, obviously).
WHO: European (Western)
WHAT: A style of architecture that combined Muslic design and Western engineering. Had spires, tall arched windows (cast to heavens) etc.
WHEN: 1100s ACE?
WHERE: Western Europe
WHY: A style of architecture that heavily represented religion. Proved the religions ability to tax, labor, and technical skill.
WHO: Western European (Frankish)
WHAT: A ruling figure of Western Europe who fought and stopped Muslims from pushing farther into Spain in the Battle of Tours.
WHEN: 732 ACE
WHERE: Western Europe
WHY: In a sense started feudalism by distributing land to knights. Stopped muslim expansion into Europe.
WHO: Charles the Great, W. Europeans (Frankish)
WHAT: Ruler of Western Europe who reunified Europe (western of course) through conquests. Crowned king of Holy Roman Empire via the pope.
WHEN: 800s ACE (circa)
WHERE: Western Europe
WHY: Reunified western Europe that had been broken apart in the Classical era. Restored church-religious education.
Holy Roman Empire
WHO: Western Europeans, Charlamagne, the pope (of the time).
WHAT: The empire that was assembled by Charlemagne as he reunified western Europe through the use of conquests.
WHEN: 800s ACE
WHERE: Western Europe
WHY: The Western European empire started with this. Allowed the empire to grow without problems and more importantly FEND OF INVADERS.
William the Conqueror
Hundred Years' War
WHAT: War over French throne brought upon by French and English royal families. French become absolute power, but a nation-state.
WHY: French become absolute power, but a nation-state.
WHO: Western Europe
WHAT: An association of men who were practically independent from the state, practicing some sort of form or establishing common rights.
WHEN: After 1000s ACE?
WHERE: Western Europe
WHY: Allowed common rights to a limited amount of people (and apprentices). Mainly men, creating a separation of gender rights again.
WHO: Sui family, Chinese people, Wendi (elite northern family), Yangdi (murdered father and strictly expanded the empire)
WHAT: The dynasty of the Sui family, in which bureaucracy was restored and improved and Confucian ideals were revived. Power was gained via marriage, supporting local nomadic leaders, and gaining support by lowering taxes and creating food granaries. Built palaces and game parks, no attempt to retake Korea.
WHEN: 580 ACE
WHY: Reunified China through helping nomadic tribes and winning support by preforming actions in favor of the people (granaries, lowering taxes, etc). However, through the son, Yangdi, the murder of the father, broken nomadic ties, legal code weakening, more conquests, and the examination system, all brought upon the downfall of the dynasty. Grand Canal built.
WHO: Li Yuan (Duke of Tang)
WHAT: Following the Sui Dynasty, nomadic leaders were forced into submission and a strong military was formed, which overran Korean armies. Re instituted bureaucracy due to the need for loyal officials that would weaken aristocratic rule (ministries formed). Confucian ideas regarded strongly, weakened Buddhism, which was still strong through nomads and Empress Wu, who emphasized Buddhism through icons, architecture, and attempting to make it a state religion. Brought to an end by Empress Wei attempting to take the throng for her son via poison, but another prince taking the throne instead.
WHEN: 618 ACE
WHY: After the Sui Dynasty's mess up, China was reunified in a strict manor, as military power became stronger, adversaries defeated, and the bureaucracy (ministries) and examination system (tests that determined social status, which said what you could practically do = Jinshi title) were put back into place. Still have family connections, yet not as strong as bureaucracy. Re-rise of Confucianism meant a threat to Buddhism and aristocracy (for the time). Nomadic leaders before, who were mostly Buddhist, still believed in salvation in Buddhism, though Buddhism was weaker due to no taxing and labor. Taoism, though fought back and tried to become official. Agricultural improvement by encouraging peasant migrations, military support, irrigation by the state, new seeds, fertilizers, inventions, and aristocratic land.
WHO: Xuanzong, Yang Guifei, Chinese, Zhao Kuangyin, Wang Anshi
WHAT: Tang dynasty fell due to poisoning for power, ill fated romance of emperor Xuanzong and Yang Guifei, etc. Revolts start and nomads start to regain power... but Zhao Kunagyin, a fearless warrior, took over. Had to pay tribute to the north though, as they were militarily stronger, though the Song's were culturally superior. To avoid problems of the Tang dynasty, military helped and saved the bureaucrats, civil officials only allowed o be governors, and promoted Confucianism (Neo-Confucianism). Many economic problems ensued due to paying northerners, the military, and not spending enough on fortifications and instead on education/entertainment. Wang Ashi tries to reform this by loaning money and establishing many services (education, irrigation, land taxes, etc). Moved farther south to avoid nomadic invasions. Wealthy goods = big. Inventions utilized by the world = economy boost.
WHEN: 960 ACE
WHY: Bureaucracy was saved and helped in this era, and Confucian ideas were re sought (like a renaissance of China, led to Neo-Confucianism). Guilds formed. Trade increased. Paper money (credit vouchers) reduced robbery, etc. Agricultural improvement by encouraging peasant migrations, military support, irrigation by the state, new seeds, fertilizers, inventions, and aristocratic land. Women had improving rights, i.e. divorce, same age marriages, alliances, defense against husbands behavior, etc. Neo-Confucianism put women "back in their place"
WHO: Yangdi, Chinese
WHAT: A canal system in which goods, people, and communication gould go north and south.
WHEN: 600s ACE
WHY: Allowed information, culture, people, and FOOD to go North/South more easily,
WHO: Chinese, Song Dynasty, Neo-Confucianism, Women
WHAT: Women were supposed to small feet, this was a sign of being feminine. By doing this, women were crippled, the poor were seen as less feminine as they needed to be able to work, and marriage goals causing the binding of daughters.
WHEN: 960 ACE
WHY: This form of seclusion is similar to Islamic veiling. It is something a woman must do to be socially acceptable, thought they don't benefit at all. A sign of male dominance in the society.
WHO: Chinese, Song Dynasty
WHAT: The search for Confucian ideals again (like a Chinese renaissance), led to a new type of Confucianism, where personal morality was the most important goal, Virtue was attained via books, personal observation, contact with the wise, hostility to foreign ideas (toward Buddhism) and tradition was emphasized.
WHEN: 960 ACE
WHY: Most important ideas are that Confucianism was strictly thought of and that foreign religions, like Buddhism, were persecuted (and old Confucian texts were preserved). Reinforced class, age, and gender distinctions = social harmony, in their minds. Demoted women rights during the Song Dynasty, making patrilineal lines again, less education and rights, footbinding, etc.
WHAT: Educated Bureaucrats (administers) who painted landscapes (and painted symbolic/philisophical lessons and abstracts in general), wrote poetry and music, debated Confucianism vs. Buddhism using landscapes and everday objects (beliefs of Confianism vs Buddhism).?
WHEN: 960 ACE?
WHY: The political and cultural backbone of the era that provided a basis for the future.?
WHO: Chinese, Japanese, Koreans, and Vietnamese
WHAT: The adoption of Chinese culture by other nations. Used by Japan and Korea (Koguryo trives) to shape culture. Korean elites tested by Chinese tests, family ties and Buddhism still stronger though (as well as Buddhist artwork). Vietnamese used Sinification for the elites to gain power and culture. Peasants disliked it though.
WHERE: Japan and Korea
WHY: The adoption of Chinese culture by these nations led to extremely similar lifestyle and overall country (honor, architecture, food, clothing, language, political ideas, religion... YOU DO THE MATH). A type of trade/communication/cultural link between Tang Dynasty China and Korea. Strength to Buddhism in Korea. Set the basis for Vietnamese (and other nations') lifestyle, technology, political ideas, religion, etc.
WHAT: A Korean dynasty that invoked inventions like the press machine
WHY: New type of press machine invented = better texts produced
Nam Viet (Vietnam?)
WHO: Vietnamese people, Chinese people.
WHAT: A people who were at first Independence form China; they had more women's rights, their own language, and ideas, etc, yet they already had technology, goods, politics and ideas (Buddhism at the time) from China. Conquered by Han Dynasty China meant that they could benefit. Crops, education, Military, Confucianism etc, good for elites of Vietnam. Peasants didn't like. Due to communication/rule complications and turmoil in China, in 939 the Independence from China won by Vietnam. Migrate south, but due to North/South conflicts (respectively Trinh and Nguyen), civil war breaks out, and eventually conquered by the French.
WHEN: 111 BCE onward
WHY: The Vietnamese were more independant from China and used Chinese technology, political ideas, and religion at first. To gain culture, the elites used sinification to gain more culture and education, while peasants hated it. Pretty a land conquered by the French in the end (so far anyways), yet still a powerful nation that overcame China strategically.
WHO: Japanese, Chinese
WHAT: Japanese civilizations copying Chinese administration (language, history in dynastic terms, court etiquette, Confucian ways, Chinese style temples, Buddhist art, Buddhism+Kami=Shinto/animism I believe).
WHEN: 600s - 700s
WHY: The Japanese attempt to copy Chinese culture and do so, this is why the two separate nations are so closely related and similar.
Heian (aka Kytoto)
WHO: Japanese, Army/Bureaucrats, Buddhist monks/aristocratic families.
WHAT: The Army/Bureaucrats' ideas lose to Buddhist monks/aristocratic families. Emperor loses influence of government to Buddhist monks; Heian, where the monks built monasteries. Power to Aristocratic families, birth placed rank, local militias. Had an ULTRAcivilized court structure. Literature detailed noble life. Women had unusual rights (in comparison to China). Warrior elites = fiefdoms. Warrior leaders = bushi, like a mini-king. Samurai armies close to lords, had bushido warrior code..
WHY: The Japanese Emperor practically loses influence to the Buddhist monks and Aristocratic families actually run the country. A start to dynastic rule and Buddhist power, especially in an idea of theocracy. Courts = VERY civilized, and literature prominent. Woman rights increasing. MANORIAL SYSTEM INTRODUCED HERE! Serfs/Warrior Kings = nobles included.
WHAT: Warrior leaders of Japan that practically were like mini kings, establishing laws, public works, taxing, maintaining armies, etc.
WHY: How Japan was ran during this time. Like warring states of China way back in the Classical (or Neolithic?) Era... I think...? End of this era = qualities deteriorate and people become barbarian-like.
WHO: Japanese Sumrai
WHAT: A warrior code to the Japanese samurai who protected the emperor at all costs. Included Courage, the whole basis for the stereotype "dishonoring one's family",, and prearranged battle location, importance of ancestry, fatalities few, etc.
WHY: The code by which Samurai fought, meaning that if two samurai from different allegiances fought (if possible), they'd have unwritten rules to abode by.
WHO: Japanese Samurai
WHAT: The code that said one must commit suicide if one wants to regain honor for his family
WHY: Honor code VERY IMPORTANT. Normally, why would the soldiers of an army kill themselves? Aboded to unwritten rules of Bushido.
WHO: Japanese people, Ashikaga
WHAT: Warlords/Military leaders that built up power to enlarge domains. Hojo family manipulated shoguns who ruled for emperors. Emperor flees during Ashikaga Shogunate, and the shoguns pass land out to samurai, who are now leaders (300 mini kingdoms known as daimyos, who maintain order and set up new technology, crops, and started guilds even though the rest of the Bushi era is growing towards barbarianism).
WHEN: 1100s+ (1336-1573 = Ashikaga Shogunate)
WHY: Military leaders (following Bakufu?) who basically built power and enlarged their domains. New technology, crops, and guild system started with the Daimyos. Women rights did increase under the Daimyos, but they still had very VERY strict rules (suicide rather than dishonor).
WHO: Japanese, Minamoto
WHAT: A military government established by Minamoto after the Gempei Wars (peasants vs samurai). Power went to the Minamoto family and Samurai retainers.
WHEN: Late 1100's
WHY: The Military government that strictly emphasized the importance of being a warrior.
WHO: Chinese, Byzantine, Middle East
WHAT: A trade route that passed through the middle of Asia from China to the Mediterranean
WHEN: (114 BCE by China?)
WHERE: China, Middle East, Mediterranean, Europe
WHY: Allowed ideas/beliefs, goods, information, and people to move along a route that was internationally (at the time) used.
Genghis Khan (aka Chinggis Khan)
WHO: Mongolian Emperor (Warrior leader)
WHAT: The first Mongolian warrior leader who organized the Mongolian empire and ended internal feuds. As Military and Political Leader of the Mongolian empire, he was a NOMAD! The entire Mongolian Empire was nomadic, and hence they did much movement (Patriarchal, but women had some influence). Born in Temejin to a tribal leader, but his father was poisoned, and he was imprisoned by a rival clan (clans by they way were kinship related, like Beduoins). Khan escapes, allies with another clan, gains a reputation, and recruits other clan chiefs. Mongolian lifestyle much like a Samurai's; unity, discipline (killed if a soldier flees, honors brave warrior, friend or foe), organization, fighting spirit, etc. Strategically fought, Under him, over half of Mongolia was ruledd. War = pleasure to him. Many weapons developed. taxed/enslaved conquered city people. "Assaulted" the Islamic World, by defeating Turkik in the West. VERY TOLERANT! WANTED DIVERSITY IN PEOPLE, CULTURE, RELIGION (conf, islam, taoism), INTELLIGENCE (though a language was created, most Mongols were illiterate), PEACE, ETC. Conquests caused much economic and social progression.
WHEN: late 1100's to 1200's
WHERE: Mongolia (to Islamic World, To China)
WHY: Responsible for the growth of Mongolia, he was a very tolerant person who was responsible for the creation of a mongol language, peace, diversity, and progression in trade and social systems through his conquests, etc.
WHO: Mongolian Leader/ Warrior King
WHAT: Leader of Mongolian empire during the Yuan Dynasty. Denied Chinese influence to keep a distinction from the settled Chinese and Nomadic Mongolian. Forbade Chinese from learning Mongolian, forbidden to intermarry, women from nomadic families accepted into harem, Mongolian religious ceremonies retained, traditional tent camp was a capital, no civil rights exam, etc. Chinese religions (Conf, Budd, Tao) were annexed. Moved Mongolian capital to Beijing. New Rituals followed. New Social structure: (Mongols > Nomads/Muslims > Northern Chinese > Ethnic/Southern Chinese). Women didn't footbind, were less feminine, had more rights, etc. Buddhism promoted, harsh treatments sometimes reduced by Khan's wife, etc. No farmlands force converted to pastureland. HOWEVER. CHINESE CULTURE, A HIGHER THAN CHINESE MUSLIM SOCIAL CLASS, AND TRAVELERS, LIKE MARCO POLO, WERE ACCEPTED; tolerated intelligence through curiosity. Eventually everything goes wrong and they lose to rebellious southern Chinese, Japanese, Vietnamese, Muslims, etc. Famine, piratry, scholar revolts, religious sects (White Lotus, magical order to overthrow mongols), etc.
WHERE: Mongolia, China, Islamic World
WHY: Denied Chinese influence and tried to keep Mongolian culture distinct (though eventually he did allow intelectual culture to assimilate). Demoted civil rights exams, wanted nomadic capital, women = more rights and less feminine, etc... NOMADIC = GOOD to him. Like Ghengis Khan, he was tolerant of other cultures, though less than the former. So importantly, Nomadic, less civilized people, like merchants and warriors were typically very good, and scholars were typically undermined in importance... yet city life flourished (literature suffers, dramas flourish). TRIES TO HELP PEASANTS ECONOMICALLY AND SOCIALLY = HELP ROOTS OF EMPIRE. Ming Dynasty started due to their fall.
WHO: European (Italian) Explorer
WHAT: (Went to Hangzou). Traveled to Asia, inspired Many European efforts at navigation
WHERE: (Hangzhou) Europe, Asia
WHY: Ispired many European efforts at navigation and travel.
Golden Horde ("People from Hell")
WHO: Golgen Tent of Early Khans (A part of the Mongolian Empire).
WHAT: Assaulted Russian territory during the winter (good horse footing, frozen rivers more cross-able), tried to fine tune war machines and get wealthy, and thus Russia was divided into small kingdoms that didn't unite. People slaughtered or sold into slavery.
WHERE: Central Asia, Russia
WHY: Responsible for Russia's culture today. Russians esnalved for over 200 years, had to give up crops, became peasants, some serfs, some were able to become merchants and increase trade and improve Moscow, etc. Overthrew Golden Horde in the Battle of Kulikova, and with this Moscow grew, Orthodox Churches became strong, princes realized the need to centralize control, reduce limitations, nobility, etc., and Russia was isol.ated from Christian lands (protected from invasions, no benefits transfered).
WHO: Mongols, Khans
WHAT: Sections of Land (of the Mongolian Empire) Ruled by a Khan.
WHERE: Mongolia, moved west and east throughout the rest of Asia during conquests.
WHY: How the Mongolian empire ran. Note they wanted to invade European lands, but Islamic lands were closer, took less effort, and overall richer.
WHAT: Polynesians go eastward to Hawaii in boats, spread culture, bring caste system, military leadership and priests (religion) powerful, no written language,
WHERE: Polynesia, practically Asia to Hawaii
Prince Henry the Navigator
WHO: Prince of Portugal
WHAT: Established an abosrvatory and school for navigation, directed votages, spurred growth of Portugals colonial empire.
WHEN: 1300s-1400s mostly
WHY: Advanced Navigation, science, economy, religion ideas, etc.