CHAPTER 5 ID
|Mission system||In 1716 the Spanish began to build a string of Franciscan missionaries for natives, in threat of French colonization. In 1690's Jesuits led by Eusebio Kino founded mission in Colorado and Gila River valleys.|
• Twenty one missions were then founded in the next 50 years in California.
• The colonial communities were closely associated with the mission system
The Spanish planned on converting the Indians so as to make them loyal subjects and to make them raise cattle and crops. And the most extensive mission project was in California, who created an economy based on irrigation faming, horse, sheep and cattle ranching.
• The system was kept functioning through violence to control the Indians like the use of shackles and solitary confinements and whipping.
• The Indians led revolts but the arms and organization f the Spanish suppressed the revolts
• This led to a decrease in child births and an increase in deaths lowering the percentage of California's native population by 25percent. Mission settlement played dominant roles in communities leading to resistance
the Spanish conquest demanded conversion of the Indians to lead them to civilization.
|French crescent||• The French began to create another catholic empire, on North America. with harsh ways they laid the foundation of their catholic ways in North America|
• The French then used their trade network and alliances with the Indians to establish a great crescent of colonies, military posts, and settlements that extended through the great lakes, down the Mississippi River to the Gulf of Mexico. Maritime colony was in the north east and Louisiana at the opposite end.
• On the crescent the French laid a colonial veneer which they believed would be a great empire to contain the English protestants
• In this empire there were a mix of communities of French and Indians and they combined to create tradition on the frontier. Activities were concentrated on commerce and identified themselves as catholic. Together the blending of the communities was something that the English and Spanish did not portray and it created some of the most distinct communities in North America
|Massachusetts general court||• Local churches were fee to run their own affairs in New England but were under the guidance of the General court. The general court consisted of a governor and representatives selected by the towns themselves. |
• Each congregation was allotted communal land and the church members would divide the land which was overseen by the general court
• The general court showed how the puritans who were religious incorporated a government which worked in accordance with their beliefs and how they controlled the societies they lived in.
|New England town meeting||• The town meeting were sessions created in new England for the different towns to select their different representatives such as the minister, and they voted on his salary and support and they elected local men such as town clerk even fence viewer|
• This meeting show the freedom that was somewhat allowed to be exercised and the involvement of everyone in the communities.
|Roger Williams||• He was the leader of the dissenting Rhode Island. He created the first formal argument against the religious toleration that was lacking in communities and the persecution of other denominations other than the puritan.|
• He was supported by many after he released his argument and it led to increasing appeal following the religious excesses of the English civil war.
• This was the first of the appeals towards religious tolerance and gave the people the encouragement to fight for their rights and their religious denomination.
|John Locke||• An English philosopher who in his Letter on tolerance said that churches were voluntary societies and world through persuasion. He said that a religion that was sanctioned by the state was not evidence that the religion was true since different states supported religions. his ideas were placed in the Toleration act|
• This was evidence that those who spoke and fought were listened to and that John Locke's letter was symbolic and held great weight in that it was accepted by the states and was used in a act towards better
|Toleration act||• The toleration act was passed in 1689 a year after John Locke's letter on toleration.|
• There was great resistance at the beginning but because of the pressure from authorities. Massachusetts and Connecticut reluctantly followed the act. Protestants began to worship freely and openly.
• The puritans were still supported on the taxation because of its self governing congregations.
• The tolerance acts opened up a form of equality and acceptance among and between the New England colonies.
|Congregationalist|| They were equivalent to the puritan church or separatists|
their churches were set up in Massachusetts bay colony it allowed for self rule
|Quakers||• Founded Pennsylvania and became a minority. They were open towards religious and ethnic pluralism. They were also known as the Society of Friends.|
• They believed in equality and opposed all forms of rank refusing to doff their hats off to superiors but instead accepted all outsiders.
• The Quakers were persecuted for their beliefs even though they accepted other beliefs. Even though it never became an established church they remained affiliated to the governing elite. They were determined to makes sure that they were not persecuted for their beliefs after the restoration.
|George fox||• Quaker who gave proof of the gender equality among the Quakers and he proclaimed that in souls there is no sex. Women preached equally with the men.|
• George fox , a Quaker displays the equality among the Quakers and this shows them as different compared to other religious denominations such as puritans
|Oral culture||• Depending on the transmission of information by the spoken word rather than through print, on the passage of traditions through storytelling and song, music and crafts. Those who followed oral culture were taught on experience about the natural world and the limitations which they had to learn to live in|
• Oral cultures could have led in a change of information because of their unreliable sources, that they could have been started without sufficient evidence. Even though they may have preserved the traditions basic core other parts of it that collectively made it up could have been significantly changed.
|Backcountry||• Settlers occupied the northern reaches of the Great Valley they began to plant Indian corn, raising hogs, hunting for meat and fur and building log cabins, a strategy that originated from the New Sweden colony. Scandinavian immigrant's brought hunting traditions and log cabin construction.|
• The Delaware Indians taught them farming and woodland hunting and in return took firearms and metal tools and building log cabins.
• This was one of the most successful cross cultural adaptations of the eighteenth century.
|Piedmont||• Because of population growth especially from forced immigration by American slaves, settlers began to move their settlements and spread out for example piedmont.|
• They specialized in growing tobacco and rice and they were overwhelmingly rural
• The increase of population led to spread of people especially towards the interior of America.
|Tidewater||The region along the southern coast of north America where there was shipping and fishing opportunities because of their strategic location, because of its opportunities and it led to spread of plantation|
|Freedom dues||• Indentured servants paid to receive transport to the New World and they were then in debt and worked for plantation owners for example. They were entitled to freedom and once free they gained different valuables that they were to get if a normal settler|
• The valuables they gained r freedom dues were convenient but there was not a lot of social mobility in between.. Chances of success were 50 percent and many were small farmers
• Those who were indentured servants and made it through were entitled to enough but they never given the life a richer or more settled settler would have no matter the wealth
|Redemptioners||• Were a somewhat form of indentured servants. Indentured servants were single men but redemptioners were families with no way to pay for their way to the New world. The family got the ship owner to pay for their passage and once they arrived on shore they were sold into service to pay off the debt|
• Many tried to runaway and were treated as harshly as the slaves were. Redemptioners practically sold themselves into a form of slavery. But the amount of immigrants as redemptioners also increased the population of the New World.
|Cotton Mather||• He was a conservative who supported the old order. He wrote a book that supported the existence of witches. He was a member of the royal society, a supporter of inoculation against disease. He defended the Copernican sun centered model of the universe. He could have been construed as raising conflicts.|
• This mix of colonial and enlightenment views characterized the colonial colleges and therefore all those who studied and were considered literate.
• And therefore there was probably a bridge created between the illiterate and the literate in views and social understanding.
|Poor Richard's almanac||• It was a combination of a calendar, astrological guide and a source book of medical advice and farming tips reflecting the concerns of traditional folk culture. And the best remembered was the one written by Benjamin Franklin called poor richard's almanac|
• These literary forms were one of the first to bring enlightenment to the ordinary folk. Especially the poor richard's Almanac written by the highly sophisticated Franklin. This enlightenment for the ordinary people probably began to break the social hierarchy created by the literacy rate of the wealthier.
|Half way covenant||• When Puritanism became an established church, attendance to services were mandatory and was expected of all townspeople and it soon led to conflict over the requirement of conversion. Therefore the half way covenant was created.|
• The covenant stated that member's children who had not yet been converted were allowed to skip communion but must nevertheless participate in other activities
the children were known as half way members.
•The puritans had chosen to manage the problem and not resolve it. This probably led to tensions and so the puritans were again trying to show superiority that they once had and this led to the Saybrook Platform which weakened the passion and commitment of church members.
• This led to disunity among the members of the society
|Arminianism||• It was a principle which puritans resorted to when people were questioning predestination. It was an idea that was comforting that god had given the freedom of choice to gain salvation through developing faith and good works|
• It went along with the Enlightenment views here women were considered as rational beings who could shape their own destinies. God was depicted as a loving father rather than a harsh, punishing father.
• This idea appealed to people with economic problems, who were lower down in the social ladder as well as the middle class. These created a more comforting idea of life after where they could rely on the works they were doing on earth. They felt a sense of equality among themselves
|Great awakening||• Widespread colonial revival of religion, known to historians as the American version of the second phase of the protestant reformation. Religious leaders condemned laxity, decadence and officialism and called for piety and purity. Those undergoing economic and social stress found relief in the religious enthusiasm.|
• The great awakening was the result of many different tensions in the colony finally coming together and blowing up together. Those, depending on their economic and social status, supported different religions and this led to freedom between choice of religion as religions were being more lenient , afraid they would lose members
|Old lights new lights|| • old lights were people who followed old tradition while the new lights tried to create a new reformation|
it led to tensions and soon enough people revolted against the reformation ideas or full supported these ideas and so led to the great awakening
|Jonathan Edwards||• The first stirrings challenging the religion rationalism were begun by the Reverend Edwards in 1730's.|
• Young people from impoverished families grew disaffected as they were forced to postpone marriages as there was scarcity do of land and expense of the land as well. Reverend Edwards appealed to these youngsters through their emotions and spoke with the passion of the puritan religion
• He was a speaker who encouraged more speakers to stand out and support what they believe in and encourage others to join them and that was exactly the reaction he got
|George Whitefield||• He was an an evangelical minister who made the first of several tours of the colonies, his preaching had a powerful effect o his audience and Benjamin Franklin even wrote of him as an extraordinary orator, he gave the people a sense of hope after making them believe they were the worst people out there, he avoided d differentiating between the different denominations and told them that god helped to forget names and just become christians in truth and deed his acceptance of everyone equally in the sight of god was probably one of his most appealing things about his preaching and therefore the sense of equality attracted many to believe him and follow him|
|Scots Irish||• they were people from the irish province and who had immigrated to the new world in the colonial times. they settled in Pennsylvania because for the religious tolerance and good land from farming They were involved in the war between the french and indian wars and the pontiac rebellions that took place in pennsylvania their church was among those who were affected by the great awakening|