cell membrane (plasma membrane) Functions
Found in all cells. Protects the cell by controlling what gets in and out.
only certain things can get through the cell membrane (Ex: small, nonpolar molecules and water)
Fluid Mosaic Model
describes the cell membrane since it is not stiff and is made up of many parts
3 types of organic molecules that make up the cell membrane
Lipids, Proteins, Carbohydrates
2 - it is a phospholipid bilayer
How many layers make up the cell membrane?
What makes up the majority of the cell membrane?
phosphate head (hydrophilic and polar) and two fatty acid tails (hydrophobic and nonpolar)
Describe the structure of a phospolipid
water channel protein in a cell
To transport large and/or polar molecules through the membrane and also some receive signals from the environment
What is the function of proteins in the cell membrane?
proteins that run all the way through the cell membrane (Ex: transport/carrier proteins)
Bind to molecules and change shape to shuttle them across the membrane
The process in which molecules of a substance move from areas of higher concentration to an area of lower concentration.
concentration of solute is equal throughout a solution
The movement of water across a membrane to get the solution on both sides of a membrane to reach equilibrium.
A solution with a higher concentration of solute than another solution.
The cell will shrink because there is more water inside the cell (less solute) so the water will move out of the cell to lessen the high concentration of solute on the outside.
If a cell is in a hypertonic solution, what will happen to it? Draw a picture to help you.
A solution with a lower concentration of solute than another solution.
The cell with grow because there is more water outside the cell (less solute) so the water will move into the cell.
If a cell is in a hypotonic solution, what will happen to it? Draw a picture to help you.
Solutions that have equal concentrations to one another.
Water will move in and out of the cell and the cell will stay the same size.
What will happen to a cell in an isotonic solution? Draw a picture to help you.
The bursting of an animal cell when placed in a hypotonic solution.
The shrinking of a plant cell placed in a hypertonic solution.
The force that pushes out on a plant's cell wall when it is placed into a hypotonic solution.
The movement of material across a cell membrane from high concentration to low concentration without the use of energy
Diffusion, Osmosis, & Facilitated Diffusion
What are the 3 types of passive transport?
The movement of material across a cell membrane from low concentration to high concentration WITH the use of energy (ATP)
Protein Pump, Endocytosis, Exocytosis
What are the 3 examples of active transport?
The movement of solute from high concentration to low concentration through a transport protein.
The movement of molecules from low concentration to high concentration through a transport protein. Energy is needed.
When concentrations of solutions on either side of a membrane are different
Taking particles into the cell (requires energy)
Releasing particles out of the cell (requires energy)
The cells will shrink because water will move out the cell to balance the high salt concentration in the soil.
If a plant is watered with saltwater, what will happen to the plants's cells?
group of similar cells that perform a particular function
group of tissues that work together to perform closely related functions
group of organs that work together to perform a specific function
the process through which cells can detect and respond to signals in their environment
the process in which cells develop in different ways to perform different tasks