By age 6, the child's body is proportionately not very different from that of an adult. (true or false)
Memories of past experience are always destructive. (true or false)
In multiethnic countries, Latinos tend to be somewhat shorter than children of African, Asian, and European descent. (true or false)
Although the right and left hemispheres of the brain have specialized functions, cognitive skill requires both sides of the brain. (true or false)
All reported cases of maltreatment are substantiated. (true or false)
Accidents are the leading cause of childhood death. (true or false)
Child maltreatment involves not only physical abuse but also failure to meet a child's basic needs. (true or false)
Boys are about 6 months ahead of girls in developing fine motor skills. (true or false)
Adoption is the preferred permanent option in preventing maltreatment of older children. (true or false)
Most maltreated children are friendlier than other children because they crave attention. (true or false)
Having an older brother or sister delays the development of a theory of mind. (true or false)
Research reveals that 2-to-6 year old children are much less logical than Piaget believed.
Most 3 year olds clearly understand that a belief can be false. (true or false)
By age 6, children's vocabulary includes an average of more than 10,000 words. (true or false)
Preschool education programs, such as Head Start, have been a disappointing failure in terms of compensating for children's impoverished home environments. (true or false)
Preoperational intelligence is magical and self-centered. (true or false)
As compared to monolingual children, bilingual children are more advanced in their theory of mind. (true or false)
A 3-year-old is likely to believe that the same amount of ice cream is actually more when it is transferred from a large bowl to a small bowl. (true or false)
Older children use private speech less effectively than younger ones. (true or false)
A young child who says, "You comed up and hurted me" is demonstrating a lack of understanding of English grammar. (true or false)
The idea that some gender differences are biologically based is becoming less well accepted with each passing year. (true or false)
Permissive parenting is almost always the most destructive parental style. (true or false)
Children who watch violent TV programs become more violent themselves. (true or false)
Most young children underestimate their own abilities. (true or false)
Although physical punishment works at the moment, longitudinal research indicates that it is likely to result in children who are bullies, delinquents, and then abusive adults. (true or false)
To empathize means to feel sorry for someone. (true or false)
In the United States, children are expected to play cooperatively by age 3. (true or false)
Physical aggression increases as children mature, while verbal aggression declines. (true or false)
By age 2, children can apply gender labels.
Children tend to confuse gender and sex throughout early childhood. (true or false)
emotional regulation (ch.10)
The ability to control when and how emotions are expressed.
initiative vs. guilt (ch.10)
Erikson's 3rd psychosocial crisis, in which children undertake new skills and activities and feel guilty when they do not succeed at them.
A person's EVALUATION of his or her own worth.
A person's UNDERSTANDING of who he or she is, in relation to self-esteem, appearance, personality, and various traits.
intrinsic motivation (ch.10)
A drive, or reason to do something, that comes from inside a person. (personal motivation)
extrinsic motivation (ch.10)
A drive, or reason to do something, that arises from the need to have one's achievements rewarded from outside.
ex.) starbursts for making shots
An illness or disorder of the mind.
externalizing problems (ch.10)
Difficulty w/ one's ability to regulate their emotions and involves expressing one's feelings through uncontrolled physical or verbal outbursts.
ex.) temper tantrums
internalizing problems (ch.10)
Difficult w/ one's ability to regulate their emotions and involves turning one's emotional distress inward.
ex.) feeling excessively guilty, ashamed, or worthless.
rought-and-tumble play (ch.10)
A type of play that mimics aggression through wrestling, chasing, or hitting, but in which there is no intent to harm and usually involves laughing. Common among young males.
sociodramatic play (ch.10)
Pretend play in which children act out various roles and themes in stories they create.
ex.) playing dress-up.
authoritarian parenting (ch.10)
An approach to child rearing that is characterized by high behavioral standards, strict punishment of misconduct, and little communication.
permissive parenting (ch.10)
An approach to child rearing that is characterized by high nurturance and communication but little discipline, guidance, or control.
authoritative parenting (ch.10)
An approach to child rearing in which the parents set limits but listen to the child and are flexible.
neglectful/uninvolved parenting (ch.10)
An approach to child rearing in which the parents are indifferent toward their children and unaware of what is going on in their children's lives.
The ability to understand the emotions and concerns of another person, especially when they differ from one's own.
Feelings of dislike or even hatred for another person.
prosocial behavior (ch.10)
Feelings and actions that are helpful and kind but are of no obvious benefit to oneself.
antisocial behavior (ch.10)
Feelings and actions that are deliberately hurtful or destructive to another person.
instrumental aggression (ch.10)
Hurtful behavior that is intended to get or keep something that another person has.
reactive aggression (ch.10)
An impulsive retaliation for another person's intentional or accidental action, verbal or physical.
relational aggression (ch.10)
Nonphysical acts, such as insults or social rejection, aimed at harming the social connection between the victim and other people.
bullying aggression (ch.10)
Unprovoked, repeated physical or verbal attack, especially on victims who are unlikely to defend themselves.
A disciplinary technique in which a child is separated from other people for a specified time.
sex differences (ch.10)
Biological differences between males and females, in organs, hormones, and body type.
gender differences (ch.10)
Differences in the roles and behavior of males and females that are prescribed by the culture.
phallic stage (ch.10)
Freud's 3rd stage of development, when the penis becomes the focus of concern and pleasure.
Oedipus complex (ch.10)
The unconscious desire of young boys to replace their father and win their mother's exclusive love.
In psychoanalytic theory, the judgmental part of the personality that internalizes the moral standards of the parents.
Electra complex (ch.10)
The unconscious desire of girls to replace their mother and win their father's exclusive love.
An attempt to defend one's self-concept by taking on the behaviors and attitudes of someone else.
gender schema (ch.10)
A cognitive concept or general belief based on one's experiences--in this case, a child's understanding of sex differences.
A balance, within a person, of traditionally masculine and feminine psychological characteristics.
Erikson's stage that occurs between 3 and 6 years is called:
initiative vs. guilt
Which of the following is a criticism of Baumrind's classification of parenting styles?
a.) She overlooked the fact that many permissive parents love their children.
b.) She focused too much on parental attitudes and not enough on daily interactions.
c.) There was too much diversity in her study samples.
d.) She overlooked the fact that most authoritative parents are lax in discipline.
b.) She focused too much on parental attitudes and not enough on daily interactions.
Freud believed that preschool boys:
secretly want to replace their fathers.
Four-year-old Bill watches television violence at least 2 hours a day. Most likely, as he grows older:
he will become aggressive himself.
Research on spanking suggests that it is quick and efficient at age 2 or 3, and that:
it may have negative repercussions later.
Three girls start a rumor that 7-year-old Heather is a bed-wetter who still uses a pacifier. They are demonstrating:
An angry 5-year-old might stop herself from hitting another child because she has developed:
Research on parents' punishment and reinforcement of their children's nontraditional behaviors has found that:
boys are more criticized than girls are for playing with toys associated with the other sex.
According to Erikson, which of the following is typical of young children?
a.) an immodest self-concept
b.) strong feelings of guilt
c.) a weak self-concept
d.) a sense of self-doubting
a.) an immodest self-concept
When 4-year-old Karen is angry, she lashes out by hitting. This is an example of:
an externalizing problem.
Gabriel's language and cognitive skills have developed greatly since he began attending preschool. His teacher explains things to the children when they participate in small-group activities and she encourages conversation between children and adults. According to Vygotsky, she uses language to advance thinking through:
a.) social mediation.
b.) the zone of proximal development.
d.) private speech.
The youngest children to demonstrate theory of mind in experiments are age:
One key factor that strengthens theory of mind at about age 4 is:
having an older sibling.
To focus on one aspect of a situation and simultaneously exclude all others is called:
Whereas Piaget saw cognitive development as a result of individual discovery, Vygotsky attributed it to:
social activities guided by others.
Which of the following would a 6-year-old child be able to do but a 2-year-old would not?
a.) verbalize scripts
b.) reiterate the zone of proximal development
c.) use mental mapping
d.) build scaffolds
The formation of overregularization in a child's speech patterns indicates:
he or she is able to apply grammatical rules, although incorrectly, to her vocalizations.
According to Vygotsky, the internal dialogue that we have with ourselves either silently or out loud is referred to as:
Skills that a person can perform with assistance, but which they cannot quite perform on their own lie within the
zone of proximal development.
Krista understands that 4 + 6 = 10 but does not understand that 10 - 6 = 4. She is displaying:
A good example of a fine motor skill is:
using scissors to cut paper.
Janie just cannot seem to keep from becoming extremely angry when she does not get her way. Her ability to reign in this tendency toward tantrums will get better when her ______ has further matured.
Melika is 4 years old. Which of the following would you expect Melika to be able to do?
hop on either foot.
In contemporary society, foster care generally means:
children's removal from the original parents.
A mistreated child who is startled at any noise and is continually looking around to see who is coming up to them is showing symptoms of:
Which of the following would be the most likely cause of death in a toddler?
jumping into a swimming pool and drowning.
Kayla is 4 years old and has recently begun coordinating the two sides of her body more efficiently. This development may be attributed to:
growth of the corpus collosum.
If a reported incident of child maltreatment has been investigated and verified, it is considered to be:
The body mass index (BMI) is the lowest of the life span at age:
An example of kinship care is:
a.) Eric and Sherral provide foster care for their neglected nephew.
b.) Michelle baby-sits her brother Tommy.
c.) Patti and Rob adopt two brothers.
d.) Mari is placed in a group home with other abused children.
Eric and Sherral provide foster care for their neglected nephew.
preoperational intelligence (ch. 9)
Piaget's term for cognitive development between the ages of about 2 and 6; it includes language and imagination (which involve symbolic thought), but logical, operational thinking is not yet possible.
centration (ch. 9)
A characteristic of preoperational thought in which a young child focuses (centers) on one idea, excluding all the others.
egocentrism (ch. 9)
Piaget's term for children's tendency to think about the world entirely from their own personal perspective.
focus on appearance (ch. 9)
A characteristic of preoperational thought in which a young child ignores all attributes that are not apparent.
static reasoning (ch. 9)
A characteristic of preoperational thought in which a young child thinks that nothing changes. Whatever is now has always been and always will be.
irreversibility (ch. 9)
A characteristic of preoperational thought in which a young child thinks that nothing can be undone. A thing cannot be restored to the way it was before a change occurred.
conservation (ch. 9)
The principle that the amount of a substance remains the same (i.e., is conserved) when its appearance changes.