Provide services to individual consumers who desire them and can afford to pay for them.
One fifth of the jobs in the United States that provide goods for sale to consumer. One fifth of the jobs are in wholesale, one third in restaurants or food stores, and the rest in shops selling goods.
One fifth of the jobs in the United States that provide services for the well-being and personal improvement of individual consumers. Most of these jobs are in health care or education. The remainder are primarily arts and entertainment and personal care, such as cleaners and beauty salons.
Facilitate other businesses.
provide services primarily to help people conduct other business--either agriculture, manufacturing, or other services. One fifth of all the U.S. jobs are in producer services. One third of theproducer-service jobs are in financial services, including banks, insurance companies, real estate, and other financial institutions. Another one third are in professional services, primarily law, engineering, and management. The remaining one third are in other business services, such as advertising, employment agencies, and janitorial work.
Transportation and Information Services
Businesses that diffuse and distribute services. In the U.S., 7% of all jobs are in this group of services. One half of these services are in transportation, primarily trucking. The other half are in information services, including publishing and broadcasting.
To provide security and protection for citizens and businesses.
Agriculture and mining
Construction and Manufacturing.
Consumer and Business Services.
Clustered Rural Settlements
A number of families live in close proximity to each other, with fields surrounding the collection of houses and farm buildings.
Dispersed Rural Settlements
Farmers living on individual farms isolated from neighbors rather than alongside other farmers in settlements.
Circular Rural Settlements
The circular form consists of a central open space surrounded by structures.
Linear Rural Settlements
Feature buildings clustered along a road, river, or dike to facilitate communications.
Colonial American Clustered Settlements
New England favoured clustered settlements centered on an open area called a common. Settlers grouped their homes and public buildings, such as the church and school, around the common. Southeastern colonies first settled with small, dispersed farms. Then, a different style emerged called a plantation.
A market center for the exchange of goods and services by people attracted from the surrounding area.
Central Place Theory
A geographic concept that explains how services are distributed and why a regular pattern of settlements exists.
Also called "market area", this is the area surrounding a service from which customers are attracted to.
The maximum distance people are willing to travel to use a service.
The minimum number of people needed to support the service.
Predicts that the optimal location of a service is directly related to the number of people in the area and inversely related to the distance people must travel to access it.
Came up with the Central Place Theory in 1903
between 1750 and 1850 in Great Britain. The British government transformed the rural landscape by consolidating individually owned strips of land surrounding a village into a single large farm, owned by an individual. When necessary, the government forced people to give up their former holdings.
The country's n-th largest settlement is 1/n the population of the largest settlement.
Earliest Urban Settlements
Ancient Athens and Ancient Rome
Modern World Cities
London, New York, and Tokyo.
Most closely integrated into the global economic system because they are at the center of the flow of information and capital.
Command and Control Centers
Second level of cities, contains the headquarters of many large corporations, well-developed banking facilities, and concentrations of other business serves, including insurance,a ccounting, advertising, law, and public relations.
Specialized Producer-Service Centers
The third level of cities, specialized producer-service centers.
Fourth-level cities provide relatively unskilled jobs and depend for their economic health on decisions made in the higher level cities.
Export primarily to consumers outside the settlement.
Enterprises whose customers live in the same community, essentially consumer services.
A community's unique collection of basic industries.
Central Business District (CBD)
Services of all types clustered in the center of the city, commonly called downtown.
Retail Services with High Thresholds
Typically Department stores, now more likely to be located in suburban malls.
Retail Services with a High Range
Specialized, with customers who patronize it infrequently, like jewellry stores. Many have moved to surburban malls.
Retail Services Serving Downtown Workers
Serves the many people who work in the center and shop during lunch or working hours. Sells things like office supplies.