Chapter 4 Tissues, Organs and Organ Systems

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Types of Body Tissues Organs and Organ Systems Homeostasis Human Biology 8th Edition Cecie Starr

Tissue

A group of similar cells that perform a certain function.

Organs

Combinations of tissues.

Organ System

Two or more organs that work together in a common task.

Epithelium

A sheetlike tissue with one surface that faces the outside environment or an internal body fluid.

Simple Epithelium squamous (locations)

Linings of blood vessels, lung alveoli (air sacs).

Simple Epithelium cuboidal (locations)

Glands and their ducts, surface of ovaries, pigmented epithelium of eye.

Simple Epithelium cuboidal (locations)

Glands and their ducts, surface of ovaries, pigmented epithelium of eye.

Simple Epithelium columnar (locations)

Stomach, intestines, uterus

Simple Epithelium columnar (locations)

Stomach, intestines, uterus

Pseudostratified columnar (locations)

Throat, nasal passages, sinuses, trachea, male genital ducts.

Pseudostratified columnar (locations)

Throat, nasal passages, sinuses, trachea, male genital ducts.

Stratified squamos (locations)

Skin, mouth, throat, esophagus, vagina.

Stratified squamos (locations)

Skin, mouth, throat, esophagus, vagina.

Stratified cuboidal (locations)

Ducts of sweat glands.

Stratified cuboidal (locations)

Ducts of sweat glands.

Stratified columnar (locations)

Male urethra, ducts of salivary glands

Stratified columnar (locations)

Male urethra, ducts of salivary glands

Basement membrane

No cells but is packed with protiens and polysaccharides.

Basement membrane

No cells but is packed with protiens and polysaccharides.

Glands

Make and release specific products, such as saliva and mucus.

Glands

Make and release specific products, such as saliva and mucus.

Goblet Cells

embedded in epithelium that lines the trachea, mucus secreting.

Goblet Cells

embedded in epithelium that lines the trachea, mucus secreting.

Simple Squamos (functions)

Diffusion; filtration; secretion of lubricants.

Simple Squamos (functions)

Diffusion; filtration; secretion of lubricants.

Simpe Cuboidal (functions)

secretion; absorption.

Simpe Cuboidal (functions)

secretion; absorption.

Simple Columnar (functions)

secretion; absorbtion; ciliated types move substances.

Simple Columnar (functions)

secretion; absorbtion; ciliated types move substances.

Simple Squamos (description)

friction-reducing slick, single layer of flattened cells.

Simple Squamos (description)

friction-reducing slick, single layer of flattened cells.

Simple Cudoidal (description)

single layer of squarish cells.

Simple Cudoidal (description)

single layer of squarish cells.

Simple Columnar (description)

singles layer of tall cells; free surface may have cilia, mucus secreting glandular cells, microvilli.

Simple Columnar (description)

singles layer of tall cells; free surface may have cilia, mucus secreting glandular cells, microvilli.

Exocrine Glands

release their secretions through ducts or tubes onto a body surface or into a cavity. ex. sweat, salivary or tear glands

Exocrine Glands

release their secretions through ducts or tubes onto a body surface or into a cavity. ex. sweat, salivary or tear glands

Endocrine Glands

Make hormones that directly enter the extracellular fluid bathing the glands.

Endocrine Glands

Make hormones that directly enter the extracellular fluid bathing the glands.

Connective Tissue

tissue of mesodermal origin consisting of e.g. collagen fibroblasts and fatty cells. Connect, support and anchor.

Connective Tissue

tissue of mesodermal origin consisting of e.g. collagen fibroblasts and fatty cells. Connect, support and anchor.

Matrix

fiberlike structural proteins together with a "ground substance" of polysaccarides that give each kind of tissue its particular properties.

Matrix

fiberlike structural proteins together with a "ground substance" of polysaccarides that give each kind of tissue its particular properties.

Fibrous connective tissues

Strong and stretchy

Fibrous connective tissues

Strong and stretchy

loose connective tissues

collagen and elastin loosely arranged in ground substance; quite flexible and fairly strong.

loose connective tissues

collagen and elastin loosely arranged in ground substance; quite flexible and fairly strong.

Dense connective tissues

mainly collagen; somewhat flexible and quite strong. Collagen fibers are aligned in parallel in the dense connective tissue of tendons and ligaments.

Dense connective tissues

mainly collagen; somewhat flexible and quite strong. Collagen fibers are aligned in parallel in the dense connective tissue of tendons and ligaments.

Elastic connective tissues

mainly elastin; easily stretches and recoils.

Elastic connective tissues

mainly elastin; easily stretches and recoils.

cartliage

mainly collagen in a watery matrix; resists compression

cartliage

mainly collagen in a watery matrix; resists compression

bone

mineral-hardened matrix; very strong

bone

mineral-hardened matrix; very strong

adipose tissue

mainly cells filled with fat; soft matrix

adipose tissue

mainly cells filled with fat; soft matrix

Blood

matrix is the fluid blood plasma, which contains blood cells and other substances.

Blood

matrix is the fluid blood plasma, which contains blood cells and other substances.

loose connective tissue (locations)

under the skin and most epithelia

loose connective tissue (locations)

under the skin and most epithelia

loose connective tissue (function)

elasticity, diffusion

loose connective tissue (function)

elasticity, diffusion

dense, irregular connective tissue (description)

collagenous fibers, fibroblasts, less matrix

dense, irregular connective tissue (description)

collagenous fibers, fibroblasts, less matrix

dense, irregular connective tissue (locations)

in skin and capules around some organs

dense, irregular connective tissue (locations)

in skin and capules around some organs

dense irregular connective tissue (functions)

support

dense irregular connective tissue (functions)

support

dense regular (description)

collagen fibers in parallel bundles, long rows of fibroblasts, little matrix

dense regular (description)

collagen fibers in parallel bundles, long rows of fibroblasts, little matrix

dense regular (locations)

tendons, ligaments

dense regular (locations)

tendons, ligaments

dense regular (functions)

strength, elasticity

dense regular (functions)

strength, elasticity

Cartilage (location)

end of long bones, nose parts of airways, skeleton of embryos

Cartilage (location)

end of long bones, nose parts of airways, skeleton of embryos

Cartilage (function)

support, flexibility, low- friction surface for joint movement

Cartilage (function)

support, flexibility, low- friction surface for joint movement

bone tissue (location)

bones of skeleton

bone tissue (location)

bones of skeleton

bone tissue (function)

movement, support, protection

bone tissue (function)

movement, support, protection

adipose tissue (location)

under skin, around heart, kidneys

adipose tissue (location)

under skin, around heart, kidneys

adipose tissue (function)

energy reserves, insulation, padding

adipose tissue (function)

energy reserves, insulation, padding

muscle tissue

cells in musle can contract, allowing muscle to move body parts

muscle tissue

cells in musle can contract, allowing muscle to move body parts

skeletal muscle

bundles of long, cylindrical, striated muscle fibers, many mitochondria

skeletal muscle

bundles of long, cylindrical, striated muscle fibers, many mitochondria

skeletal muscle (location)

partner of bones, against which it exerts great force

skeletal muscle (location)

partner of bones, against which it exerts great force

skeletal muscle (function)

locomotion; posture; head and limb movements

skeletal muscle (function)

locomotion; posture; head and limb movements

cardiac muscle

cylindrical muscle; cylindrical muscle fibers that abut at their ends; contract rapidly as a unit

cardiac muscle

cylindrical muscle; cylindrical muscle fibers that abut at their ends; contract rapidly as a unit

cardiac muscle (location)

heart wall

cardiac muscle (location)

heart wall

cardiac muscle (function)

forcefully pump blodd through circulatory system

cardiac muscle (function)

forcefully pump blodd through circulatory system

smooth muscle

contractile cells tapered at both contractile ends

smooth muscle

contractile cells tapered at both contractile ends

smooth muscle (location)

wall of arteries, veins, sphincters, stomach, urinary bladder, many other internal organs

smooth muscle (location)

wall of arteries, veins, sphincters, stomach, urinary bladder, many other internal organs

smooth muscle (functions)

controlled constriction, motility (as in gut), blood flow in arteries

smooth muscle (functions)

controlled constriction, motility (as in gut), blood flow in arteries

integument

consists of skin, oil and sweat glands, hair, and nails.

integument

consists of skin, oil and sweat glands, hair, and nails.

Peripheral vasodilation

signals cause blood vessels in the skin to dilate

Peripheral vasodilation

signals cause blood vessels in the skin to dilate

Hypothalamus

a structure in the brain that includes both neurons and endocrine cells

Hypothalamus

a structure in the brain that includes both neurons and endocrine cells

Perpheral vasoconstriction

reduces blood flow to capillaries near the body surface, so your body retains heat.

Perpheral vasoconstriction

reduces blood flow to capillaries near the body surface, so your body retains heat.

Nervous tissue

communication between body parts; coordination, regulation of cell activity

Nervous tissue

communication between body parts; coordination, regulation of cell activity

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