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12. If a candidate is a highly visible incumbent seeking reelection,

c. there may be little need for campaigning except to remind the voters of the officeholder's good deeds.

13. Tracking polls are used

a. on a daily basis to determine last-minute changes in the mood of the electorate.

15. Reforms to the Federal Election Campaign Act in 1974 did not

c. provide public funding for Congressional elections.

18. Most PAC contributions go to

b. incumbents.

19. Which is (are) true?

b. The money spent by PAC on elections has lessened in recent years.

20. Independent expenditures

b. are unregulated funds spent by interest groups on advertising or other campaign activities.

21. Advertising paid for by interest groups that support or oppose a candidate (or a candidate's position on an issue) without mentioning voting or elections is called

c. issue advocacy advertising.

22. The Bipartisan Campaign Reform Act of 2002

a. bans soft money contributions to national parties.

23. The organizations that came to be known as "527s"

b. were set up by interest groups when soft money was outlawed.
c. run issue ads to energize voters.
e. both b and c.

24. Which is (are) true?

c. Most primaries are winner-take-all.

25. The difference between a closed primary and an open primary is that in a closed primary

d. only pre-registered party members can vote.

27. When only declared party members can vote in a primary election, it is called

a. a closed primary.

28. When voters can vote in either party primary without disclosing their party affiliation, it is called

b. an open primary.

29. When the top two candidates in a primary compete in a second primary for the majority of votes, it is called

c. a run-off primary.

33. The number of members each state will have in the Electoral College

d. is determined by adding the number of representatives and the number of senators a state has in Congress.

34. The manner in which members of the Electoral College are selected within each state is currently governed by

a. state laws and party rules.

35. Which of the following is (are) true?

d. The only way that our nation could cease to use the Electoral College is through the process of constitutional amendment.

37. A party-column ballot is a form of general election ballot

c. in which the candidates are arranged in one column under their respective party.

39. All of the following statements about low voter turnout are true except that

b. it is much more common in most other countries to have low voter turnout than in the United States.

40. Which of the following groups tends to be overrepresented in the electorate?

a. Wealthier people

41. Reported voter turnout _____ as education _____.

d. decreases, decreases

42. Reported voter turnout _____ as age _____.

a. increases, increases

43. In the years following the adoption of the Constitution, many states placed legal restrictions on the right to vote because of

a. a belief that since many government decisions affect property, so one should own property to vote.

45. The mass media perform all of the following functions except

a. funding media watchdog groups.

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