the mental faculty or power of vocal communication
a variety of speech characterized by its own particular grammar or pronunciation, often associated with a particular geographical region
A collection of languages related to each other through a common ancestor long before recorded history.
a smaller group of related languages within a language family
A collection of languages within a branch that share a common origin in the relatively recent past and display relatively few differences in grammar and vocabulary.
A boundary that separates regions in which different language usages predominate
Societies with out a written language
The form of a language used for official government business, education, and mass communications.
a family (or phylum) of several hundred related languages and dialects, including most major languages of Europe, Iran, and northern India, and historically also predominant in Anatolia and Central Asia.
collapsing of two language into one.
new languages are formed when a language breaks into dialects
Languages of traditional, numerically smaller, and technoligically less advanced people have been replaced, or greatly modified, by the languages of invaders.
The diversification of languages over time
process by which an extinct language is recreated
language which came before Latin, greek, sanscript
hypothesized ancestral language of Proto-Indo-European, as well as other ancestral language families.
family of indigenous American languages. Second oldest & largest family. Less widely diffused.
the oldest, largest, and most widely distributed superfamily spread from the shores of Hudson Bay to the coast of Tierra del Fuego
Family of languages concentrated along Arctic and near-Arctic shores.
theory of how proto-inko european spread into europe that speakers spread westward on horseback
the branch of lexicology that studies the place names of a region or a language
The language adopted for use by the government for the conduct of business and publication of documents.
countries in which only one language is spoken
a state that uses many languages
two different speaking language people find a common language to communicate
an artificial language used for trade between speakers of different languages
a mother tongue that originates from contact between two languages
an artificial language based as far as possible on words common to all the European languages
discriminatory or abusive behavior towards members of another race
an ethnic quality or affiliation resulting from racial or cultural ties
a society in which different cultural groupls keep their own identity, beliefs, and traditions
small, usually rural and ethnically homogeneous enclaves situated within a larger and more diverse cultural context.
a culturally shared trait that gives an ethnic or cultural group a strengthened sense of awareness and self-identity
process that works against globalization, revitalizing cultural ties and promoting distinction.