Science--Chapter 9: Changes to Earth's Surface and Chapter 10: Lesson One, What are Natural Resources? (Soil)

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25 terms · Sister Maria Catherine's 4th Grade

Canyon

A deep, narrow valley with steep sides.

Valley

A lowland area with higher land around it that stretches between mountains and between hills. Its wide floor and gently sloping sides are different from those of a canyon.

Plain

Large, flat landforms that can have a gently rolling surface or a slight slope. These landforms don't have highlands or deep valleys.

Mesa

A land formation, less extensive than a plateau, having steep walls and a relatively flat top.

Dunes

These landforms form in dry areas or along sandy coasts. They form where wind carries sand. As the wind flows over rocks or other barriers, its speed slows. The wind drops the sand around the object.

Island

A body of land surrounded by water.

Delta

This landform is formed by the movement of sand and sediment and forms at the ends of rivers. The river drops most of the rock and soil where it meets the lake or ocean.

Volcano

A cone-shaped landform that sometimes releases hot rocks, gases and ashes. A mountain that forms as lava flows through a crack onto Earth´s surface.

Glaciers

A large, moving block of ice.

Faultline (Earthquakes)

A break or crack in the Earth where the rocks on one side have moved relative to the rocks on the other side.

Peninsula

A piece of land that is bordered by water on three sides but connected to mainland.

Mountain

An area that is higher than the land around it, usually at least 500 meters (1,600 ft) tall.

What are the layer of the Earth in order?

Crust--solid rock
Mantle--solid and liquid rock
Outer Core--liquid metal
Inner Core--solid metal

Which layers of Earth make up the plates?

1) Crust
2) Mantle

Be able to identify the FOCUS, EPICENTER and FAULT of an earthquake.

What is a DORMANT volcano?

An "asleep" volcano that has not erupted in many years.

What is an ACTIVE volcano?

An "awake" volcano that still erupts.

What is LAVA?

Molten rock that is ABOVE ground.

What is MAGMA?

Molten rock that is UNDERground.

What is weathering?

A gradual wearing away or changing of rock and soil caused by water, ice, temperature changes, wind, chemicals, or living things.

What is erosion?

The moving pieces of soil or rock by mechanisms including gravity, wind, water, ice, or plants and animals.

What is the difference between weathering and erosion?

When rocks are broken into smaller pieces it is called WEATHERING, but when the pieces of these rocks are moved it is called EROSION.

How is soil formed?

By the processes of weathering, erosion, and deposition working together.
1) Bedrock/solid rock
2) Partly weathered rock
3) Soil

List the layers of soil.

1) Topsoil
2) Subsoil
3) Bedrock

What are the ingredients in soil?

1) Weathered rock
2) Humus (remains of decayed plants & animals)
3) Living organisms
4) Water and air

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