Nutrition chapter 7

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heat energy

type of energy that maintains a constant body temperature

mechanical energy

type of energy that moves muscles

electrical energy

type of energy that sends nerve impulses

chemical energy

what type of energy is stored in foods and the body

metabolism

when the body releases of energy (ATP), water, and carbon dioxide is called

photosynthesis

type of energy metabolism when plants use the sun's energy to make carbohydrates form carbon dioxide and water. this is called

c) fuel

humans and animals eat the plants and use the carbohydrate as________for their bodies:
a) energy
b) chemical process
c) fuel
d) metabolism

proteins

During digestion, the energy yielding nutrients are broken down to except:
a) monosaccharides
b)proteins
c)fatty acids
d) glyceron
e) amino acids

a)ATP

what is the major carrier molecule in most cells:
a) ATP
b)glucose
c) Pyruvate
d) A kcalorie

d) inside the cell and liver cells

where the metabolic reaction takes place and in what organ:
a) outside the cell and small intestine cells
b) in the mitocondria and stomach cells
d) inside the cell and liver cells

anabolism

type of chemical reaction in the body that building up of body compunds and requires energy

catabolism

type of chemical reaction that breakdown of body compounds and releases energy

a) involve release of energy

a feature of catabolic reactions is that they:
a) involve release of energy
b) occur only in mitochondria
c) involve consumption of energy
d) occur only during loss of body weight

involves requirement of energy

a feature of anabolic reaction is that they:
a) involves requirement of energy
b) occur only in mitochondria
c) involve consumption of energy
d) occur only during loss of body weight

mitochondria

A typical cell contains powerhouses, which is another name for the:

glycogen. anabolic reaction

the sum of glucose + glucose is = to _____, and what type of reaction: anabolic or catabolic

tryglycerides. anabolic

the sum of Glycerol + fatty acids is = to_____, and what type of reaction: anabolic or catabolic

protein. anabolic

the sum of amino acids + amino acids= to_______, and what type of reaction: anabolic or catabolic

glucose. catabolic

the break down of glycogen is ______ and what type of reaction: anabolic or catabolic

glycerol ------>fatty acids. catabolism

the break down of tryglycerides is ________---->______, and what type of reaction: anabolic or catabolic

amino acids. catabolism

the break down of protein is _________ and what type of reaction: anabolic or catabolic

adenosine triphosphate

name of ATP

ATP

this is a type of energy compoun that captures the energy released during metabolism:
a) A Kcalorie
b)glucose
c) Pyruvate
d) ATP

coupled reactions

are chemical reaction that occur simultaneously:

energy is release when the high energy phophate bond in ATP is broke

when energy is release by ATP?
a) when a phophate group is attached to ADP, making ATP
b) when the high energy phophate bond in ATP is broke
c) ADP releases a phophate group and becomes ATP

energy is required when a phophate group is attached to ADP, making ATP

when energy is required by ATP?
a) ADP releases a phophate group and becomes ATP
b) when the high energy phophate bond in ATP is broke
c) when a phophate group is attached to ADP, making ATP

c) ATP releases a phosphate group and becomes ADP

which of the following metabolic reactions occurs when a cell uses energy:
a) ATP gains a phosphate group and becomes ADP
b) ADP gains a phosphate foup and becomes ATP
c) ATP releases a phosphate group and becomes ADP
d) ADP releases a phophate group and becomes ATP

coenzymes

complex organic molecules that work with enzymes to facilitate the enzymes activity.

b) are protein catalysts that cause chemical reactions

is NOT a feature of coenzymes:
a) organic molecules that functions as enzyme helpers
b) are protein catalysts that cause chemical reactions
c) without coenzymes, an enzyme cannot function

enzymes

protein catalyts that cause chemical reactions: enzymes or coenzymes

b) pyruvate

A three-carbon compound reversible convertible to glucose is:
a) an amino acid
b) pyruvate
c) acetyl CoA
d) a fatty acid
e) glucose

c) acetyl CoA

a two-carbon compound that cannot be used to make glucose:
a) an amino acid
b) pyruvate
c) acetyl CoA
d) a fatty acid
e) glucose

fat

the parts that are converted to acetyl CoA cannot provide glucose but can readily provide_________
a) pyruvate
b) an amino acid
c) Fat
d) a fatty acid
e) acetyl CoA

c) glucose, pyruvate, lactid acid, acetyl acid, acetyl CoA, TCA cycle, electron transport chain.

which of the following outlines is the overall sequence of events in the TCA cycle and electron transport chain
a) Electron transport chain, TCA cycle, electron transport, acetyl CoA, lactid acid, pyruvate.
b) glucose, TCA cycle,acetyl CoA, electron transport, lactid acid, pyruvate.
c) glucose, pyruvate, lactid acid, acetyl acid, acetyl CoA, TCA cycle, electron transport chain.
d) Electron transport chain, acetyl CoA, lactid acid, pyruvate, glucose.

glycolysis

name of the metabolic breakdown of glucose to pyruvate

a) it is irreversible

which of the following is not an aspect of glycolysis:
a) it is irreversible
b) it generates ATP
c) it occurs in the absence of oxygen
d) it generates two molecules of pyruvate for each molecule of glucose

a) anarobic pathway

pyruvate is conveted to lactate in:
a) anarobic pathway
b) an aerobic pathway
c) pyruvate oxidation
d) glycolysis

c) lactate

during the breaking down of nutrients for quick energy in the body, pyruvate is converted to:
a) glucose
b) citric acid
c) lactate
d) fatty acids

anaerobic

when your are runing a quarter of mile as fast as you can the breakdown of glucose to pyruvate to lactate proceeds:
anaerobic or aerobic pathways

anaerobic

quick energy needs:
anaerobic or aerobic pathways

aerobic

slower energy needs:
anaerobic or aerobic pathways

b)

during the breaking down of nutrients for slow energy in the body, pyruvate is converted to:
a) glucose
b) acetyl CoA
c) lactate
d) fatty acids

d)

when a person is jogging around the track for an hour the pyruvate is converted to:
a) glucose
b) citric acid
c) lactate
d) acetyl CoA

relaxation

is a person exercise for many hours and become really tired (because of the accumulation of lactate in muscles), which one is NOT a type of physical effects could present:
a) drop of pH
b) relaxation
c) fatigue
d) burning pain

Cori

The process of converting lactate from the muscles to glucose in the liver that can be returned to the muscles is know as:
a) TCA
b) Cori
c) glycolysis

1. 6
2. 3
3. 16-18
4. 2,3 or more
5. 3
6. 2

how many carbons is in each of these compounds:
1. glucose
2. glycerol
3. fatty acids
4. amino acids
5. pyruvate
6. acetyl CoA

carbon dioxide. acetyl CoA. irreversible

in activities with slow energy requirements pyruvates converts to acetyl CoA. Pyruvate enter to the mitrochondria of cell, and carbon becoming________. then 2 carbon compounds joins with CoA becoming________. is this process reversible or irreversible.

glucogenic

animo acids that can be used to make glucose are called

ketogenic

animo acid that are converted to acetyl CoA are called

b

which is not a function of Acetyl CoA
a) synthesize fats when the body has enough ATP
b) convert hydrogen and electrons to glucose
c) generate ATP through TCA cycle, when cell is low in energy

amonia

which of the following products is not generated via the TCA cycle or electron transport chain:
a) water
b) energy
c) amonia
d) carbon dioxide

oxigen

an aerobic reaction is one that requires:
a) alcohol
b) oxigen
c) nitrogen
d) amonia

c)

what type of diet is associated with the developtment of ketosis:
a) low fat
b) low protein
c) low carbohydrate
d) high carbohydrate

an anerobic pathway

pyruvate is converted to lactate in:
a) an anaerobic pathway
b) an aerobic pathway
c) pyruvate oxidation
d) glycolysis

b

an immediate consequence of a cellular deficiency of oxaloacetate is a slowing of:
a) glycolysis
b) the TCA cycle
c) lactate synthesis
d) ketone formation

b

which of the following outlines the overall sequence of events in the complete oxidation of glucose:
a) cori cycle, TCA cycle, glycolysis
b) Glycolysis, TCA cycle, elctron transport chain
c) electron transport chain, TCA cycle, Cori Cycle
d) TCA cycle, electron transport chain, glycolysis

d

Lillie has been losing weight by following a very low carbohydrate diet for 2 months. Her primary care physician just diagnosed ketosis through a urine sample. which of the following symptoms would be another way the physician might have suspected ketosis in Lillie?
a) thinning hair
b) irritable temper
c) fishy body odor
d) fruity odor on breath

a

pyruvate is converted to lactate in:
a) an anaerobicc pathway
b) an aerobic pathway
c) pyruvate oxidation
d) glycoysis

d

psychological effects of food deprivation include:
a) muscle wasting, slow heart rate, and depression
b) significant loss of body fat, loss of water, and anxiety
c) significant loss of body weight, hunger, and elation.
d) depression, anxiety, and food related dreams

c

one starch exchange is______grams of carbohydrate:
a) 5 grams
b) 12 grams
c) 15 grams
d) 20 grams

b

one milk exchange is_____grams of carbohydrate:
a) 5 grams
b) 12 grams
c) 15 grams
d) 20 grams

a

one nonstarchy vegetable exchange is_____grams of carbohydrate.
a) 5 grams
b) 12 grams
c) 15 grams
d) 20 grams

d

when is breaking down nutrients for energy, glycerol is converted to :
a) proteins
b) fats
c) triglycerides
d) pyruvate

b

how many carbons has glycerol.
a)2
b)3
c)6

glucose and pyruvate

*****name of the other 3 carbon compounds that glyceron can be converted.

a

during the breaking down of nutrients for energy fatty acis are converted to:
a) acetyl CoA
b) glucose
c) triglycerides
d) proteins

fatty acid oxidation

name of the metabolic breakdown of fatty acids to acetyl CoA.

F

can be used fatty acid to synthesize glucose: T of F

c

how is called when glucose is making form noncarbohydrate sources?
a) glucose oxidation
b) TCA
c) gluconeogenesis

liver

what organ is the major site of gluconeogenesis:
a) small intestine
b) stomach
c) liver
d) gallbladder

a

site where TCA cycle occurs:
a) mitochondria
b) inside the cell
c) transport chain
d) cell nucleous

c

if a diet provided an ample carbohydrate amounts, ensures an adequate supply of:
a) fat
b) proteins
c) oxaloacetate
d) lipids

9, 4, 4.

how many kcalories per gram are there in fat, carbohydrates and proteins.

c

what type of compound produce more energy:
a) carbohydrates
b) proteins
c) fat
d) amino acids

ATP synthesis

name of the process or cycle where hydrogen ions flow downhill from an area of high concentration to an area of low concentration through a special protein complex.
a) electron transport chain
b) ATP synthesis
c) TCA cycle
d) cori clycle

a) electron trnasport chain

name of the process where electrons are passing from carrie to carrie along the chain releases enough energy to pump hydrogen ions across the membrane.
a) electron transport chain
b) ATP synthesis
c) TCA cycle
d) cori clycle

feasting

when a person overeats is called:

fasting

when a person drawn on stores is called.

from liver that converts fats to ketone bodies, which serve as an alternative energy source for the bain.

when a person has not eatean for 24 hours (starvation), how the bain receive energy.

glycogen, fat.

when a person eats in excess of enegrgy needs, the body stores a small amount of________ and much larger quantities of_________.

glycogen, fat.

about 2 to 3 hours after a meal, when nutrients from a meal aare no longer available to provide energy, the body wraws on its________and________ stores for energy.

glucose

important substance that is needed for the good fuction of brain and nerve cells

ketosis

what happen when the brain becomes fueled by ketone bodies (name of the shift process)

ketones

what the body produce when the glucose is not availabe.

supress

the ketosis produce more appetite or supress appetite.

c

which one is not a sympton of starvation:
a) muscle wasting
b) decrease heart rate, respiratory rate, metabolic rate and body temperature
c) relaxation
d) impaired vision
e) organ failure
f) decreased immunity
g) depression, anxietey and food related dreams.

weight

when the body is in ketosis process, the body is losing fat, or weight

a urine test which is looks for ketone formation from glycogen depletion

if an adolescent is losing a lot of weight, but she said that is eating and she does not know why is lossing weight which will be a good method to know if she is saying the truth.

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