nutri sci test 2 - multiple choice questions

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Protein deficiency can cause
a) Neurotransmitter stimulation.
b) Poor immune function.
c) Kwashiorkor.
d) Both a and b.
e) Both b and c.

e

Which will likely elevate blood total cholesterol and LDL to the greatest extent?
a) Polyunsaturated fat
b) Monounsaturated fat
c) Saturated fat
d) Dietary cholesterol
e) None of the above

c

Proteins are a class of compound differentiated from other macronutrients by which of the following characteristics?
a) They contain nitrogen, provide 4kcals/gram of energy
b) They are made up of 20 amino acids, 9 of which are essential.
c) They number in the millions of variation, depending on the sequence of amino acids.
d) All of the above.

d

Prevention of chronic diseases starts with:
a) Exercise, high fiber, low monounsaturated fat intake and sparing use of alcohol, salt and sugar.
b) Salt and sugar.
c) Exercise, high fiber, very high polyunsaturated fat intake and sparing use of alcohol, salt and sugar.
d) Exercise, high fiber, low saturated fat intake and sparing use of alcohol, salt and sugar.
e) None of the above.

e

Which describe (s) how molecules made of amino acids can function in the body?
a) Speed up biochemical reactions
b) Act as chemical messengers
c) Destroy foreign proteins
d) Regulate fluid balance
e) All of the above.

e

Which sequence of events best describes the cooking, digestion and absorption of protein (as in a hard-boiled egg)?
a) Denaturation by heat - denaturation by acid and protease in stomach and large intestine -absorbed in stomach as amino acids and dipeptides.
b) Chemical breakdown in mouth - denaturation by acid and protease in stomach -absorbed in stomach as smaller proteins.
c) Denaturation by heat - denaturation by acid and protease in stomach and small intestine -absorbed in small intestine as amino acids and dipeptides.
d) Chemical breakdown in mouth - further chemical breakdown in stomach -absorbed in stomach as smaller proteins.

c

Which phrases relate to the indicated condition?
a) Heart attack: brain death, atherosclerosis in blood vessels of the heart.
b) Heart attack: myocardial infarction, obstruction from a clot.
c) Stroke: MI, blood vessels of the brain
d) Stroke: atherosclerosis in the vessels through which blood leaves the heart

b

Which of the following would be the most desirable situation and would be the most likely to reduce your risk of heart disease?
a) Increased levels of total cholesterol in your blood.
b) An increased intake of saturated fat.
c) An increased level of HDL cholesterol in your blood.
d) A change in egg consumption from 4 per week to 3 per week

c

Which lipoprotein contains the highest proportion of cholesterol?
a) Low density lipoprotein (LDL)
b) Chylomicrons
c) Very low density lipoprotein (VLDL)
d) Ultra-high density lipoprotein (UDL)
e) Moderate density lipoprotein (MDL)

a

Which is NOT a function of lipid?
a) Enhances food flavor
b) Primary storage of energy in the body
c) Component of cell membranes
d) Primary source of energy for the brain
e) Source material for steroid hormones

d

Which of these events occurs because of ischemia?
a) Myocardial infarction
b) Atherosclerosis
c) Stroke
d) Angina
e) a, c, and d

e

The liver transports triglyceride in:
a) Low density lipoprotein (LDL)
b) Very low density lipoprotein (VLDL)
c) Chylomicrons
d) High density lipoprotrein (HDL)
e) None of the above.

b

An amino acid is considered essential if
a) It can only be made in the body.
b) It can be used in gluconeogenesis.
c) It cannot be made in the body.
d) It is necessary for the production of cell membranes.

c

Why does carbohydrates have a protein-sparing effect?
a) Glucose replaces amino acids in protein sequence in a situation of having a limiting amino acid.
b) Protein is the primary energy source of the body, but carbohydrate provides an alternative.
c) Carbohydrate intake prevents gluconeogenesis.
d) Both b and c.
e) None of the above.

c

Basal metabolism is
a) The energy needed to digest food.
b) The reactions that sustain key life processes.
c) The reactions that release energy for movement.
d) Storage of nutrients for future use.

b

Which type of body fat distribution is at greatest risk of heart disease, type II diabetes, and hypertension?
a) "Apple" shape
b) "Banana" shape
c) "Pear" shape
d) "Potato" shape

a

Your basal (or resting) metabolic rate is most reliably and directly related to
a) How much you eat.
b) Your usual level of physical activity.
c) Changes in body fatness.
d) Your lean body mass.

d

Which is NOT a health risk associated with obesity discussed in lecture?
a) Ulcers
b) Arthritis
c) Type II diabetes
d) Heart disease
e) Cancer

a

To lose a pound of fat per week, you need to:
a) Expend 500 kcals more per day than you consume.
b) Expend 1000 kcals more per day than you consume.
c) Go on a diet of 1500 kcals/day if you are a man.
d) Go on a diet of 1200kcals/day if you are a woman.
e) Both c and d are correct.

a

Identify which of the following is a typical body response to extended severe energy deprivation:
a) Expends more energy than normal as the body senses the person's attempt to lose weight.
b) Conserves energy by lowering basal metabolism.
c) No difference in energy usage; energy just come from the body's stores instead of from food.
d) None of the above.

b

The thermic effect of food consumes about ______ percent of ingested energy.
a) 10
b) 20
c) 0.10
d) 0.20
e) None of the above.

a

An athlete in high level training for an endurance sport will probably expend an amount of energy equivalent to what percent of their basal metabolic rate in physical activity?
a) 0-25% BMR
b) 25-50% BMR
c) 50-125% BMR
d) 125-200% BMR

c

Which of the following statements best describes the obese condition?
a) Obesity is a chronic disease whose cause is psychological.
b) Obesity is a chronic disease whose cause is genetic.
c) Obesity is a chronic disease whose cause is genetic and psychological.
d) Obesity is a chronic disease whose cause is genetic and environmental.

d

A person with a "thrifty metabolism"
a) Burns calories at a high rate while at rest
b) Wastes little food in preparation
c) Uses energy very efficiently
d) Does not readily store excess food energy
e) Excretes few waste products

c

Energy balance is when:
a) Underweight or losing weight
b) Energy intake = energy expenditure
c) Overweight or losing weight
d) Energy expenditure ≠ energy intake

b

Normal or healthy body mass index (BMI) is:
a) BMI ≥ 30
b) BMI ≤ 18.5
c) BMI ≥ 25 to 29.9
d) BMI >18.5 to 24.9

d

What IS a sustainable way to lose weight:
a) Eat less of the same food
b) Exercise frequently and decreased fat intake
c) Low carbohydrates diet
d) Eat once a day.

b

Which of the following is definitely not a protein?
A. antibody.
B. enzyme.
C. Neurotransmitter binding site.
D. glycogen.

d

Peptide bonds are formed:
A. by excluding water molecules.
B. by excluding hydrogen atoms.
C. by making emulsifiers.
D. when proteins are denatured.

a

Nonessential amino acids:
A. are not needed by the body.
B. are not needed in the diet.
C. are not needed daily, but weekly.
D. are found in only incomplete proteins.

b

The denaturing of protein:
A. destroys its amino acid order.
B. happens in the stomach.
C. increases its enzyme activity.
D. forms an emulsifier.

b

the order of amino acids in a specific protein determines its:
A. energy content.
B. function in the body.
C. biological value.
D. ability to form glucose.

b

Vegetarians who eat no animal products or nutrient-fortified products should supplement their diets with:
A. vitaminC.
B. magnesium.
C. vitaminA.
D. vitamin B-12.

d

the RDA for protein of a 60-kilogram (132 pound) woman is:
A. 36grams.
B. 42grams.
C. 48grams.
D. 54 grams.

c

Which is NOT true about kwashiorkor?
A. Protein needs are generally not met.
B. The child appears plump because of edema.
C. The child is at a high risk for infections.
D. The affected person is usually a very young infant.

d

Which of the following is NOT a protein?
A. maltose.
B. hemoglobin.
C. insulin.
D. collagen.

a

A good protein intake recommendation is ____ of total energy intake.
A. 5% to 10%.
B. 10% to 15%.
C. 15% to 20%.
D. 20% to 25%.

b

the food group that contributes no protein is:
A. milk,etc.
B. bread,etc.
C. vegetable.
D. fruit.

d

The chemical element (atom) found in all proteins, but not usually in fats or carbohydrates, is:
A. carbon.
B. nitrogen.
C. hydrogen.
D. oxygen.

b

An essential (indispensable) amino acid:
A. forms a complete protein.
B. is needed only by growing infants and children.
C. may prevent dermatitis.
D. cannot be synthesized by the body in sufficient amounts to meet the body's needs.

d

During pregnancy, nitrogen balance should be:
A. negative.
B. inequilibrium.
C. positive.

c

the RDA for protein is increased:
A. during mental stress.
B. after age 50.
C. during pregnancy and lactation.
D. whenever physical activity is increased.

c

One would expect to see a negative protein balance:
A. when certain hormones, such as thyroid hormone and cortisol, are released in excess amounts.
B. during pregnancy.
C. as one recovers from an illness.
D. in any healthy human being.

a

Proteins help regulate body pH by:
A. accepting and releasing free hydrogen ions.
B. accepting alkaline substances from the blood.
C. releasing acid-forming amino acids into the blood.

a

Insulin, and other medications that are protein in nature, cannot be administered orally because:
A. they will not be absorbed through the intestinal wall.
B. they will be digested and lose their biological activity.
C. they will activate the immune system.
D. they will diminish kidney function.

b

Which group of foods is highest in fat?
A. hamburger, french fries, and cupcake.
B. margarine, salad dressing, and cornoil.
C. cottage cheese, chicken, and soybeans.
D. eggs, cheese, and milk.
E. apple, spinach, and corn.

b

If an 1800-kcal diet contains 100 grams of fat, the percentage of kcal from the fat is:
A. 20%.
B. 35%.
C. 50%.
D. 65%.

c

The three-carbon "backbone" found in all triglycerides is called:
A. glycerol.
B. fatty acid.
C. acetic acid.
D. stearic acid.

a

Hydrogenation of fat does NOT:
A. increase shelf life.
B. make it harder.
C. make it more unsaturated.
D. reduce the tendency for oxidation

c

If someone truly could eat no fat, he would:
A. eliminate his risk for cancer.
B. not be able to make vital hormone like compounds.
C. necessarily have a low serum cholesterol level.
D. have a high satiety value for his diet.

b

Cholesterol:
A. comes only from the animal food in our diets.
B. must be eaten in the diet.
C. is a break down product of lipids.
D. when present in the diet, is the leading cause of heart disease.

a

Emulsifiers and fat digestion are related in that:
A. emulsifiers are necessary for fat digestion.
B. an emulsifier produces a bile acid.
C. both are classified as carbohydrates.
D. both operate primarily in the stomach.

a

The form of fat in food is primarily in the form of:
A. cholesterol.
B. fattyacids.
C. triglycerides.
D. phospholipids.

c

Because lard is a solid at room temperature, most of its fatty acids are:
A. long and saturated.
B. short and saturated.
C. long and unsaturated.
D. short and unsaturated.

a

bile acids are made from:
A. glucose.
B. cholesterol.
C. vitamin A.
D. essential fatty acids.

b

The three major risk factors for heart disease do NOT include:
A. high blood cholesterol.
B. personality.
C. high blood pressure.
D. smoking.

b

As seen in some Eskimo populations, too much of this fatty acid can lead to hemorrhagic stroke due to its tendency to decrease blood clotting:
A. ω-6.
B. ω-3.
C. ω-9.

b

A glycerol backbone with one or two fatty acids plus another group, possibly a phosphorus group, produces a:
A. sterol.
B. trans fatty acid.
C. phosphoric acid group.
D. phospholipid.

d

Antioxidants protect the double bonds present in lipids by donating electrons to electron- seeking compounds.
A. True
B. False

a

What percentage of a day's total energy need is used for digesting, absorbing, transporting, and storing nutrients?
A. 1% to 3%
B. 5% to 10%
C. 15% to 20%
D. 25% to 30%

b

Probably the most important reason for obesity today in the United States is:
A. genetic selection.
B. Set-point problems.
C. "eating on the run".
D. inactivity.

d

Problems encountered with the use of drugs to lose weight include:
A. drugs may produce serious side effects.
B. many drugs induce the loss of body fluid but not body fat.
C. drugs do not lead to permanent changes in eating habits.
D. all of the above.

d

An example of a behavior modification technique for weight control is:
A. always clean your plate when you eat.
B. have someone criticize you if you over eat.
C. feel guilty after you overeat.
D. keep a record of eating habits to understand what situations cause you to overeat.

d

A weight reduction program can be considered successful only when the weight loss:
A. is done without harming one's health.
B. is maintained permanently.
C. includes loss of body fat, body protein, and body water.
D. A and B.

d

If remaining at rest, an adult would use about how many kcals in a day?
A. 500
B. 800
C. 1400
D. 2500

c

A reliable approach for weight loss is to:
A. reduce daily energy intake and increase energy expenditure.
B. avoid foods containing carbohydrates.
C. greatly increase protein intake to prevent body protein loss.
D. cut down on water intake.

a

What is usually the major factor that explains variability in the energy needs of two healthy men of similar age and size:
A. brown adipose tissue metabolism
B. basal metabolism
C. physical activity
D. type of diet consumed

c

A low-carbohydrate diet causes:
A. an increase in extracellular fluid.
B. glycogen synthesis.
C. increased rate of normal metabolism.
D. use of muscle tissue to produce glucose.

d

When using physical activity to help lose weight, the key is:
A. intensity.
B. improving sports skills.
C. duration and regularity.
D. doing it at 6AM.

c

Behavior modification in obesity treatment includes:
A. following the physician's orders to the letter.
B. understanding and correcting poor dietary habits.
C. very low calorie diets.
D. gastric bypass surgery.

b

thermic effect of food represents the energy cost of:
A. chewingfood.
B. peristalsis.
C. basal metabolism.
D. digesting, absorbing, and packaging nutrients.

d

A significant health hazard from obesity is:
A. ulcers.
B. diverticulosis.
C. Type 2 diabetes.
D. emphysema.

c

The best foods to consume when trying to lose weight should contain some bulk and minimal calories. These are:
A. protein.
B. complex carbohydrates.
C. fat.
D. none of the above.

b

The difficulty in losing weight and the tendency for dieters to regain weight both support the concept of:
A. set-point.
B. nature.
C. nurture.
D. prevention.

a

Basal metabolism is
A. the energy needed to digest food
B. the reactions that sustain key life processes
C. there actions that release energy for movement
D. storage of nutrients for future use

b

In a typical person, which makes the greatest contribution to total energy expenditure?
A. basal metabolism
B. physical activity
C. thermic effect of food
D. adaptive thermogenesis
E. both b and c (2 and 3)

a

If total body weight does not change, an increase in lean tissue
A. lowers basal metabolism
B. raises basal metabolism
C. increases percent body fat
D. is reflected in scale weight
E. both a and c (1 and 3)

b

Which is NOT a component of total energy expenditure?
A. basal metabolism
B. discaloric induction
C. physical activity
D. thermic effect of food

b

Which of the following would be a desirable situation and would be the most likely to reduce your risk of heart disease?
A. an increasing amount of total cholesterol in your blood
B. an increasing intake of saturated fat
C. an increasing level of HDL cholesterol in your blood
D. a change in egg consumption from 4 per week to 3 per week

c

Which protein source is most likely to lower your blood levels of cholesterol?
A. chicken
B. pork
C. fish
D. soy

d

Which will likely elevate blood total cholesterol and low-density lipoproteins (LDL) to the greatest extent?
A. polyunsaturated fat
B. monounsaturated fat
C. saturated fat
D. dietary cholesterol

c

What can occur in atherosclerosis?
A. occlusion or blocking of the arteries
B. heart attack
C. stroke
D. cholesterol deposition
E. all of the above

e

What deposits plaque on the arterial wall?
A. HDL
B. chylomicrons
C. LDL
D. VLDL
E. blood clots

c

Which of the following statements is FALSE?
A. Estrogen is protective against heart disease
B. LDLs transport cholesterol to the arterial wall
C. Smoking is a risk factor of heart disease
D. HDLs will eventually increase with weight loss
E. none of the above

e

What value for total cholesterol is considered healthy?
A. >300mg/dl
B. <200mg/dl
C. <35mg/dl
D. >200 mg/dl

b

Which is likely to be the best source of saturated fat?
a. olive oil
b. beef
c. vegetable oil
d. oatmeal
e. fish

B

Which will likely elevate blood total cholesterol and low-density lipoproteins (LDL) to the greatest extent?
a. polyunsaturated fat
b. monounsaturated fat
c. saturated fat
d. dietary cholesterol
e. none of the above

C

High levels of which one are most closely associated with greater risk of heart disease?
a. low-density lipoproteins
b. high-density lipoproteins
c. chylomicrons
d. total cholesterol
e. very low-density lipoproteins

A

Proteins are a class of compounds differentiated from other macronutrients by which of the following characteristics?
a. They contain nitrogen, provide 4 kcals/gram in energy.
b. They are made up of 20 amino acids, 9 of which are essential.
c. They number in the millions of variations, depending on the sequence of amino acids.
d. Amino acids are coded for by DNA.
e. All of the above.

e

Triglycerides are:
a. Glycerol and three fatty acids.
b. Lipids.
c. Fats.
d. None of the above.
e. All of the above.

e

The liver transports triglyceride in:
a. Low density lipoprotein.
b. Very low density lipoprotein
c. Chylomicrons
d. High density lipoprotein
e. None of the above.

b

An athlete in elite-level training for an endurance sport will probably expend an amount of energy equivalent to what percent of their basal metabolic rate in physical activity?
a. 0-25% BMR
b. 25-50% BMR
c. 50-125% BMR
d. 125- 200% BMR

c

Which of the following statements best describes the obese condition?
a. Obesity is a chronic disease whose cause is psychological.
b. Obesity is a chronic disease whose cause is genetic.
c. Obesity is a chronic disease whose cause is genetic and psychological.
d. Obesity is a chronic disease whose cause is genetic and environmental.

d

Essential fatty acid
a. is a phospholipid
b. can be made from carbohydrate in the diet
c. can be made from protein in the diet
d. can be made from non-essential fatty acids in the diet
e. none of the above is correct

e

In what form do lipids circulate in the blood stream?
a. triglycerides
b. lecithin
c. plaque
d. lipoproteins
e. aqualipids

d

A person with a "thrifty metabolism"
a. burns calories at a high rate while at rest
b. wastes little food in preparation
c. uses energy very efficiently.
d. does not readily store excess food energy
e. excretes few waste products

c

Which describe(s) how molecules made of amino acids can function in the body?
a. speed up biochemical reactions
b. act as chemical messengers
c. destroy foreign proteins
d. regulate fluid balance
e. all the above

e

Which of the following is likely to improve the LDL/HDL ratio, in terms of the prevention of atherosclerosis?
a. monounsaturated fats
b. polyunsaturated fats
c. fish oils
d. tropical oils
e. omega- 4 fats

a

Which fatty acids are clear liquids at cold temperatures?
a. saturated fats
b. monounsaturated oils
c. tropical oils
d. polyunsaturated oils
e. hydrogenated fats

d

Which is the most common form of naturally occurring fats we consume?
a. hydrogenated fats
b. free fatty acids
c. triglycerides
d. phospholipids
e. sterols

c

An amino acid is considered essential if

a. it can only be made in the body.
b. it can be used in gluconeogenesis.
c. it cannot be made in the body.
d. it is necessary for the production of cell membranes.
e. it performs a vital function in the body.

c

Identify which of the following is a typical body response to extended severe energy deprivation:
a. Expends more energy than normal as the body senses the person's attempt to lose weight.
b. Conserves energy by lowering basal metabolism.
c. No difference in energy usage; energy just come from the body's stores instead of from food.
d. none of the above.

b

For diagnostic purposes, the American Psychological Association defines eating disorders as:
a. psychological disorders
b. multifactorial diseases
c. extreme dieting
d. malnutrition
e. nutritional disorders

a

Which groups of vegans should take special care in planning their diets?
a. Elderly people and teenage boys
b. Teenage girls and pregnant women
c. Middle-aged men and women
d. Pregnant women and very young children

d

Which group needs the most protein per unit of body weight?
a. young children
b. elderly
c. teens
d. adults
e. vegans

a

The strongest evidence of a causal relationship between dietary fat intake and the development of cancer comes from
a. animal studies
b. epidemiological studies
c. human clinical trials
d. correlations between national fat intakes and cancer incidence

a

Which of the following would be the most desirable situation and would be the most likely to reduce your risk of heart disease?
a. increased levels of total cholesterol in your blood
b. an increased intake of saturated fat
c. an increased level of HDL cholesterol in your blood
d. a change in egg consumption from 4 per week to 3 per week

c

The first chemical challenge to proteins during digestion occurs in the
a. stomach
b. mouth
c. small intestine
d. large intestine
e. liver

a

Which is NOT a health risk associated with obesity discussed in lecture?
a. ulcers
b. arthritis
c. type II diabetes
d. heart disease
e. cancer

a

Your basal (or resting) metabolic rate is most reliably and directly related to
a. how much you eat.
b. your usual level of physical activity.
c. changes in body fatness.
d. your lean body mass.

d

Basal metabolism is
a. the energy needed to digest food.
b. the reactions that sustain key life processes.
c. the reactions that release energy for movement.
d. storage of nutrients for future use.

b

Which has NOT been known to produce cardiac arrhythmias through electrolyte imbalance?
a. prolonged hot weather exercise
b. anorexia nervosa
c. bulimia nervosa
d. binge eating disorder
e. none of the above

d

Which lipoprotein contains the highest proportion of cholesterol?
a. Low Density Lipoprotein (LDL)
b. Chylomicrons
c. Very Low Density Lipoprotein (VLDL)
d. Ultra-high Density Lipoprotein (UDL)
e. Moderate Density Lipoprotein (MDL)

a

Which vegetable oil is the best source of omega-3 fatty acids?
a. sesame
b. corn
c. coconut
d. canola
e. safflower

d

Which of the following is NOT synthesized from cholesterol?
a. vitamin D
b. estrogen
c. bile
d. steroid hormones
e. insulin

e

Based on what you know from this class, which eating disorder is most likely to have lowered metabolism as a consequence?
a. anorexia nervosa
b. binge eating disorder
c. obsessive-compulsive disorder
d. bulimia nervosa
e. pica

a

Why does carbohydrate have a protein-sparing effect?
a. Glucose replaces amino acids in protein sequence in a situation of having a limiting amino acid.
b. Protein is the primary energy source of the body, but carbohydrate provides an alternative.
c. Carbohydrate intake prevents gluconeogenesis.
d. Both a and c.
e. None of the above.

c

Which is most likely to result from consuming an incomplete protein as a sole protein source?
a. inadequate protein synthesis
b. increased gluconeogenesis
c. increased glycogen synthesis
d. lower blood sugar
e. an excess of essential amino acids

a

Higher intakes of dietary cholesterol will generally ____________ the body's own synthesis of cholesterol.
a. not effect
b. increase
c. decrease

c

What recommendations have been made regarding dietary intake of fats and cholesterol?
a. Total fat 20 - 35 % intake, saturated fat <10% intake, cholesterol <300 mg/day
b. Total fat 20 - 25 % intake, saturated fat <5% intake, cholesterol < 100 mg/day
c. Total fat 20 - 35 % intake, saturated fat <5% intake, cholesterol <100 mg/day
d. Total fat 20 - 35 % intake, saturated fat <10%, cholesterol <100 mg/day
e. None of the above.

a

Atherosclerosis is :
a. Part of the process of heart disease and stroke.
b. Is the narrowing of arteries.
c. Is the formation of plaques on the walls of blood vessels.
d. Is the process of a blood clot lodging in a narrowed blood vessel.
e. answers a, b and c.

e

Which are major dietary sources of fat as determined by NHANES?
a. vegetable oils
b. animal products
c. grain products
d. both a and b
e. both b and c

d

How can you lower your total cholesterol level?
a. reduce saturated fatty acid intake
b. increase polyunsaturated fatty acid intake
c. increase soluble fiber intake
d. increase monounsaturated fatty acid intake
e. all of the above

e

Evidence from the Nurses Health Study suggests that saturated fat promotes
a. breast cancer
b. colon cancer
c. all kinds of cancer
d. all of the above
e. none of the above

b

Asian and Mediterranean peoples have a low incidence of chronic disease. Americans have a high incidence. What is different in American lifestyles? Americans practice:
a. high fat, high carbohydrate, high exercise
b. low fruit/vegetable, low fiber, low exercise
c. low animal fat, high fiber, high kcal
d. very low fat, very high carbohydrate, very high fiber

b

Which is characteristic of the "apple" body shape?
a. primarily visceral fat distribution
b. increased risk of chronic disease
c. increased fat deposited on hips
d. both a and b
e. both b and c

d

What plant protein has protein quality similar to that of animal protein?
a. gelatin
b. peanuts
c. soy
d. string beans
e. white flour

c

What is a benefit of eating plant proteins instead of animal proteins? Plant proteins are...
a. higher in fiber
b. lower in cholesterol
c. more biologically active
d. a and b
e. all of the above

d

What was a limitation of the Nurses Health Study?
a. It didn't include a truly low-fat consumption group.
b. It didn't measure fat intake at an early age.
c. The nurses involved practiced strict caloric restriction.
d. a and b
e. all of the above

d

Which is NOT useful in losing body fat?
a. decreasing fat intake
b. decreasing muscle mass
c. increasing energy expenditure
d. decreasing energy intake
e. increasing fiber intake

b

As body weight decreases, assuming daily routine and exercise patterns do not change, what happens to energy expenditure?
a. decreases
b. stays the same
c. increases
d. can't be predicted
e. decreases, then increases

a

If your diet provides more than enough kcals to meet your energy needs and also more than enough protein for growth and repair, in what form is the excess protein stored?
a. fat
b. glycogen
c. glucose
d. muscle
e. none of the above

a

Which of the following statements about body fat is correct?
a. Men should have about 15 % body fat by weight.
b. Women generally have a lower percentage of fat than men.
c. Men should have about twice as much fat mass as lean mass in their bodies.
d. The potential calories available from glycogen in the male body exceed the potential calories available from their fat stores.

a

A diet too high in protein (and therefore low in carbohydrate) might result in a.
a rapid increase in blood sugar.
b. muscle breakdown for glycogenolysis (conversion of glucose to glycogen).
c. extra burden on kidneys to excrete nitrogen.
d. all of above.
e. a and c only

c

Which of the following statements best describes high-fiber foods?
a. They are generally high in kcals.
b. Examples are ice cream, meat, and dairy products.
c. They tend to be high in sugar but low in fat.
d. They promote satiety due to their higher volume with respect to low-fiber foods.

d

Dieting (a chronic reduction in food intake) may result in:
a. reduced metabolic rate
b. reduced muscle mass
c. increased BMI in the short term
d. a and b
e. b and c

d

Each additional pound of weight is harder to lose than the previous pound. Why? What happens to energy expenditure as we lose weight? Assume constant levels of activity.
a. Energy expenditure increases.
b. Energy expenditure decreases.
c. Energy expenditure does not change.
d. Energy expenditure is not related to weight.

b

Which group is most likely to respond to external cues to eat, rather than internal cues?
a. the obese
b. normal weight
c. underweight
d. fasting individuals
e. non-smokers

A

A vegan can best complement grain products in the diet by eating ____________; complementarity is most important for _________.
a. legumes; vegans growing rapidly
b. nuts and seeds; pregnant vegans
c. legumes; adult vegans
d. nuts and seeds; elderly vegans

a

Which is the most accurate and reliable measurement of body composition?
a. underwater weighing
b. Body Mass Index
c. insurance company appropriate weight-for-height tables
d. body impedance analysis
e. both b and d

a

A limiting amino acid interrupts protein synthesis because
a. it cannot be broken by digestive enzymes
b. it prevents absorption from the gut
c. it is the first amino acid in the protein's amino acid sequence to run out.
d. both a and b

c

Which reduces the blood's tendency to clot and thus may help prevent heart attacks?
a. HDL
b. mono-unsaturated fat
c. LDL
d. saturated fat
e. omega-3 fatty acids

e

Which dietary modification is most likely to produce cancer in animals?
a. high in polyunsaturated fat
b. high in saturated fat
c. high in monounsaturated fat
d. low in calories
e. low in total fats

a

Based on what we discussed in lecture, which of these organisms is most likely to have its cell membranes composed primarily of omega-6 polyunsaturated fatty acids?
a. winter wheat (wheat planted in fall that remains in the ground over the winter)
b. arctic char (a fish of northern waters)
c. coconut palm
d. horse
e. human with high meat consumption

a

Which has the highest proportion of protein?
a. HDL
b. LDL
c. chylomicrons
d. VLDL
e. a and c

a

Why is linoleic acid considered an Essential Fatty Acid?
a. the body can't synthesize omega-6 bonds
b. the body can't synthesize omega-3 bonds
c. the body can't elongate polyunsaturated fatty acids
d. linoleic acid is not an Essential Fatty Acid
e. both b and c

a

The omega number of a fatty acid specifies
a. its valence
b. number of carbon atoms in the chain
c. first point of unsaturation
d. location of the first double bond
e. both c and d

e

Carbon has a valence of
a. 1
b. 2
c. 3
d. 4
e. both b and d

d

Glycerol serves as a backbone of which molecule?
a. free fatty acids
b. olestra
c. phospholipid
d. triglyceride
e. both c and d

e

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