Belief that everyone should be considered equal, expresses the idea that all human persons are equal in fundamental worth or moral status.
Martin van Buren
Served as secretary of state during Andrew Jackson's first term, vice president during Jackson's second term, and won the presidency in 1836
granting favors or giving contracts or making appointments to office in return for political support
election of 1824
In this election, four candidates from the same party competed for the nation's highest office. In the end, Andrew Jackson received the most popular votes and the most electoral votes but he was not elected. Because no candidate won a majority of electoral votes, the election was thrown into the House of Representatives. Speaker of the House Henry Clay steered the election toward John Quincy Adams. When Adams then appointed Clay to be Secretary of State, Jackson and his supporters leveled charges of a "corrupt bargain."
Refers to the claim from the supporters of Andrew Jackson that John Quincy Adams and Henry Clay had worked out a deal to ensure that Adams was elected President by the House of Representatives.
John Quincy Adams
U.S. Senator from Massachusetts and was Secretary of State under President Monroe. In the presidential election of 1824, no one candidate received a majority of electoral votes and the election was decided in his favor by Congress.
John C Calhoun
The 7th Vice President of the United States and a leading Southern politician from South Carolina during the first half of the 19th century. He was an advocate of slavery, states' rights, limited government, and nullification.
Distinguished senator from Kentucky, who ran for president five times until his death in 1852. He was a strong supporter of the American System, a war hawk for the War of 1812, Speaker of the House of Representatives, and known as "The Great Compromiser." Outlined the Compromise of 1850 with five main points. Died before it was passed however.
The seventh President of the United States (1829-1837), who as a general in the War of 1812 defeated the British at New Orleans (1815). As president he opposed the Bank of America, objected to the right of individual states to nullify disagreeable federal laws, and increased the presidential powers.
Economic program advanced by Henry Clay that included support for a national bank, high tariffs, and internal improvements; emphasized strong role for federal government in the economy.
Tariff of 1824
represented a major victory for those advocating the protection of American manufacturing. This tariff, however, clearly worked to the benefit of manufacturing interests of the New England and Mid-Atlantic States at the expense of the South and West.
Tariff of 1828
a protective tariff passed by the U.S. Congress that came to be known as the "Tariff of Abominations" to its Southern detractors because of the effects it had on the Antebellum Southern economy; it was the highest tariff in U.S. peacetime and its goal was to protect industry in the northern United States from competing European goods by increasing the prices of European products.
election of 1828
First presidential election after the expansion of number of eligible voters as a result of universal white male suffrage, personality is more important than issues, The first presidential election to consist of major campaigning and slander of the opposing candidate
split in election of 1824, Jackson's branch became Democratic Party, the others became the Whigs. A political party which favored states rights and weaker national government
informal group of friends who advised Jackson during his administration.
The practice of rewarding supporters with government jobs. Jackson made this practice famous for the way he did it on a wide scale.
The doctrine that a state can declare null and void a federal law that, in the state's opinion, violates the Constitution.
South Carolina Exposition
A pamphlet published by the South Carolina legislature, written by John C. Calhoun. It spoke against the "Tariff of Abominations," and proposed nullification of the tariff. Calhoun wished to use nullification to prevent secession, yet address the grievances of sectionalist Southerners. These sectionalist ideas helped lead to the Civil War.
Force Bill of 1833
authorized the president to use the army and navy to compel obedience of the states to national laws - no state can nullify a law of the United States.
Jackson and the 2nd BUS
Jackson weakened Bank's power by moving funds to state banks; then ordered Americans to use gold and silver to buy government owned lands
Jackson's handpicked (without the consent of congress's) secretary of treasury, he removed government specie from the BUS and gives it to 'pet banks'
A term used by Jackson's opponents to describe the state banks that the federal government used for new revenue deposits in an attempt to destroy the Second Bank of the United States; the practice continued after the charter for the Second Bank expired in 1836.
Indian Removal Act
law passed in 1830 that forced many Native Americans to move west of the Mississippi River
Bad Axe Massacre
Final battle of the Black Hawk war. 2 day battle that resulted in a massacre of men, women and children by the US Army
Cherokee Nation v. Georgia
1831 - Supreme Court refused to hear a suit filed by the Cherokee Nation against a Georgia law abolishing tribal legislature. Court said Indians were not foreign nations, and U.S. had broad powers over tribes but a responsibility for their welfare.
Worcester v. Georgia
Supreme Court Decision - Cherokee Indians were entitled to federal protection from the actions of state governments which would infringe on the tribe's sovereignty - Jackson ignored it.
Trail of Tears
the relocation and movement of Native Americans, including many members of the Cherokee, Creek, Seminole, and Choctaw nations among others in the United States, from their homelands to Indian Territory (present day Oklahoma) in the Western United States.
appointed by Andrew Jackson to succeed John Marshall, Chief Justice; sought to restore power to the states
Charles River Bridge Co v. Warren Bridge Co
Taney declared that a legislative charter did not necessarily bestow a monopoly and that a legislature could charter a competition to promote general welfare
An American political party formed in the 1830s to oppose President Andrew Jackson and the Democrats, stood for protective tariffs, national banking, and federal aid for internal improvements
Active in the 1820s and 1830s, this was considered to be the first American third party, formed in 1828 in New York; feared the Freemasons were too powerful and wanted to take over the country, and viewed the Freemasons as an elitist group
Election of 1836
Whigs ran three sectional candidates in order to deprive Martin Van Buren of a majority. The strategy failed and Van Buren won the election.
She recommended the abolition of capital punishment and advocated women's rights, focusing especially on the need for birth control and liberalized divorce laws. Founded the Nashoba Commune in Tennessee as a utopian community to prepare slaves for emancipation.
Working Men's Parties
nicknamed the "Workies", founded in 1828, was the first labor union in the United States, located in Philadelphia. They promoted free public education as a way out of poverty. They also demanded a 10-11 hour work period and universal male suffrage.They were created to "promote the interests and enlightenment of the working classes." Their main purpose was to provide financial support to journeymen striking against their masters
Panic of 1837
Ecnomic downturn caused by loose lending practices of stat banks' and overspeculation. Martin Van Buren spent most of his time in office attempting to stablize and lessen the economic situation, As a result of Jackson's economic policies, the United States went through another depression It resulted in the closure of many banks and record unemployment levels.
Depression of 1839
deflationary crisis resulted in bankruptcies and worsening credit conditions. Banks responded by cutting back on loans. The credit crunch tended to hurt even profitable firms and result in a drop in investment. It lasted five years with the failure of banks and then-record-high unemployment levels.
Commonwealth v. Hunt
(1842) a landmark ruling of the MA Supreme Court establishing the legality of labor unions and the legality of union workers striking if an employer hired non-union workers.
Specie Circular of 1836
Ordered the prohibition of the use of anything except gold or silver coin-"specie", or "hard money"-for purchase of public land. Supported by Jackson
election of 1840
Whigs united under William Henry Harrison, the one Whig candidate who had won national support 4 years earlier. Borrowing campaign tactics from the Democrats and inventing many of their own, Whigs campaigned hard in every state. The result was a Whig victory and a truly national two-party system.
was an American military leader, politician, the ninth President of the United States, and the first President to die in office. His death created a brief constitutional crisis, but ultimately resolved many questions about presidential succession left unanswered by the Constitution until passage of the 25th Amendment. Led US forces in the Battle of Tippecanoe.
the first vice-president to succeed on the death of a president, he served practically all of Harrison's term. His opinions on all the important issues had been forcefully stated, and he had only been chosen to balance the Whig ticket with no expectation he would ever have power. He was in favor of state's rights, and a strict interpretation of the constitution, he opposed protective tariffs, a national bank and internal improvements at national expense. He served from 1841-1845
Famous American politician and orator. he advocated renewal and opposed the financial policy of Jackson. Many of the principles of finance he spoke about were later incorporated in the Federal Reserve System. Would later push for a strong union.
party formed to support Andrew Jackson following the election of 1824; in the mid to late 1800s, this party championed states' rights and fought political domination by economic elites (opposing tariffs, federal funding for internal improvements, and other extensions of federal power); this party had its core support in the South until the 1930s during FDR's presidency, when it began to embrace a more aggressive and involved federal government. During the New Deal, Democrats began to lose the support of the white South—their traditional stronghold—and won support from farmers, urban workers, blacks, and women.
believed in expanding federal power on economy, encouraged industrial development; could only gain power on the local level, led by Henry Clay (anti-Jackson)