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The skeleton does not

store red blood cells

Osseous tissue is a _____ tissue

connective

These are all tissues that are part of a long bone except

transitional epithelium

The expanded head at each end of a long bone is called

an epiphysis

A bone is covered externally with a sheath called ______, whereas the internal surface is lined with _________.

periosteum ; endosteum

_______ are bone-forming cells

Osteoblasts

When ______ become enclosed in lacunae, they become cells called ________

osteoblast; osteocytes

Which of these is an inorganic component of the bone matrix?

hydroxyapatite

Spicules and trabeculae are found in

spongy bone

Red bone marrow does not contain

yellow bone marrow

______ provides hardness to bones, whereas ______ provides some degree of flexibility.

hydroxyapatite and other minerals; proteins

_____ have a ruffled border with many deep infoldings of the plasma membrane, whereas _______ have long,thin,fingerlike cytoplasmic processes.

Osteoclasts; osteocytes

What would you find in the marrow cavity of the diaphysis of an adult humerus (arm bone)?

yellow bone marrow

Which one of the following bone cells would have the greatest number of lysosomes?

osteoclasts

_____ are common in compact bone but rarely seen in spongy bone

central canals

Intramembranous ossification produces the

flat bones of the skull

In endochondral ossification, the precursor connective tissue is _______, which is replaced by bone

hyaline cartilage

The _____ is a marginal zone of the epiphyseal plate where, in children and adolescents, bone can be seen replacing the hyaline cartilage.

metaphysis

Achondroplastic dwarfism is a hereditary condition in which the long bones of the limbs fail to elongate normally because of reduced hyperplasia and hypertrophy of cartilage in the

epiphyseal plate

Chondrocytes multiply in this zone of the metaphysis

zone of cell proliferation

Mature bones are remodeled throughout life by employing

appositional growth

Bone elongation is the result of

cartilage growth

Wolff's law of bone explains the effect of

mechanical stress on bone remodeling

A growing long bone in a child has only two areas of cartilage at the epiphysis. These two areas are

articular cartilage and epiphyseal plate

______ is the process of dissolving bone and returning it's minerals to the blood stream

resorption

Which of the following exemplifies a positive feedback process happening in bone mineral deposition

The first few crystals to form attract more calcium and phosphate

Phosphate is necessary for all of the following except

amino acids

Calcium plays an essential role in all of the following except

DNA synthesis

Parathyroid hormone (PTH) does not

lower blood calcium

_____ is synthesized by the combined action of the skin, kidneys, and liver, and is important to the deposition of bone

Calcitrol

Which of these is not an effect of calcitrol

cartilage growth in the epiphyseal plate

_____ does not put women at risk of hypocalcemia

removal of the thyroid glands

Blood Ca 2+ deficiency stimulates _____ secretion, which leads to ______

parathyroid hormone; increased osteoclast activity

Hypocalcemia can cause

spasms

Arteriosclerosis is one example of etopic ossification, which means

abnormal calcification of a tissue

If a thyroid tumor secreted an excessive amount of calcitonin, we would expect

an elevated level of osteoblast activity

A soft callus forms during

the healing of a fracture

Osteoporosis is most common in elderly women because of the lack of ______, which would otherwise inhibit _______

estrogen; osteoclast activity

A fracture in which the bone is broken into three or more pieces is called a _______ fracture.

comminuted

The result of calcium and phosphate levels in blood too low for normal deposition is the softness of the bones called ______ in children and _______ in adults.

rickets; osteomalacia

Bone protrudes through skin in a fracture called

open

A pathologic fracture

is a break in a bone weakened by some other disease

Which of the following is the correct sequence of events in the healing of a bone fracture

hematoma formation, soft callus formation, hard callus formation, bone remodeling

Patches of fibrocartilage formed in the healing of a fracture are called _____, whereas the bony collar formed around the fracture is called ______.

soft callus, hard callus

_____ affects more people than any other bone disease.

Osteoporosis

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