Midterm Review for U.S. History

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Political Parties, George Washington

The Federalists and Democratic Republican versions formed within Washington's Cabinet, led by Hamilton and Jefferson.

Jay's Treaty (1795), George Washington

We negotiated with Britain to get their forts out of the Ohio Territory, but they were allowed to continue their fur trade in the area.

National Bank (1791), George Washington

Hamilton's Economic Plan included one of those to help Northeastern merchants and to make sure that the wealthy were invested in the federal government.

Whiskey Rebellion (1794), George Washington

Farmers in Western Pennsylvania resented a federal tax on their cash "crop," but Washington showed that the law will be enforced by the new national government.

Bill of Rights, George Washington

Many anti-Federalists agreed to support ratification once the Federalists promised to add this set of amendments protecting individual rights.

Proclamation of Neutrality (1793), George Washington

Washington refused to get the U.S. involved in the war between Britain and France. He warned against "entangling alliances" and issued this statement.

Genet, George Washington

This French citizen came to America to ask for support in the French Revolution. He insulted Washington by asking the people directly after the president has refused to provide aid.

Battle of Fallen Timbers, George Washington

Indian resistance in the Ohio Territory was ended by "mad Anthony" Wayne at this battle.

Cabinet, George Washington

Washington began the tradition of hiring a group of professional advisers, creating the positions of Secretary of State (Jefferson), Secretary of Treasure (Hamilton), Secretary of War (Knox) and Attorney General (Randolph).

Kentucky and Virginia Resolves (1798-1799), John Adams

Jefferson and Madison wrote these critiques of the Alien and Sedition Acts, creating the doctrine of nullification- meaning that states could declare federal laws unconstitutional.

France, John Adams

Adams decided not go to war with this nation over violation of neutral shipping rights. The decision was smart but not popular.

XYZ Affair (1798), John Adams

The French sent low-level diplomats to meet with out American delegation and demanded a $250,000 bribed to see Talleyrand. Americans were insulted and said, "millions for defense, but not one cent for tribute."

Sedition Act (1798), John Adams

Adams got Congress to make it illegal to criticize the government. The law was used to prosecute Democratic-Republicans.

White House, John Adams

The president got this official residence in the new capital, Washington, D.C.

Judiciary Act of 1801, John Adams

Adams created 16 new federal judgeship's and filled them with "midnight judges" -Federalists appointed at the last minute of his term.

Alien Act (1798), John Adams

This law increased the amount of time that immigrants had to be in the U.S. before they could vote. It ended up keeping Democratic- Republicans form registering.

Impressment, Thomas Jefferson

Americans were outraged that both the British and the French were kidnapping sailors on American ships and making them serve in their navies. This term refers to the practice of kidnapping.

Marbury v. Madison (1803), Thomas Jefferson

The Supreme Court established judicial review, meaning that it is the courts' job to interpret the law.

Embargo Act (1807), Thomas Jefferson

Jefferson tried to keep us out of a war with Britain or France by stopping trade with those countries through this law. In the short-run, the hurt commerce in the North, but in the long-run, the law helped to make Americans self-sufficient in manufacturing.

Lewis and Clark (1803-1806), Thomas Jefferson

Jefferson sent these people to explore the newly purchased Louisiana Territory.

Burr-Hamilton Duel, Thomas Jefferson

Hamilton died in this fight; Hamilton fired in to the air.

Barbary Pirates (1801-1805), Thomas Jefferson

The U.S. was involved in a quasi-war for several years over free trade rights in the Mediterranean. We fought against this group.

Louisiana Purchase (1803), Thomas Jefferson

Jefferson nearly doubled the size of the U.S. when he bought this area from France for $15 million.

Pell-mell, Thomas Jefferson

Jefferson believed in random seating at dinner parties, casual dress, and the virtue of the common man. This term refers to his refusal to recognize rank.

War of 1812, James Madison

Believing that the British were trying to destroy the American economy, Madison began this conflict that was known as the "Second War for american Independence."

Tippecanoe, James Madison

William Henry Harrison got a reputation for being an effective "Indian Killer" at this battle against Native Americans who had British support. It occurred in the Northwest Territory in what is now Illinois.

Hartford Convention, James Madison

Federalists criticized the War of 1812 at this secret meeting, and there were rumors of secession by the Northeastern states whose commercial economies ere most harmed by the war. When the U.S. wont the war, Federalists lost their credibility.

National Road, James Madison

This federal internal improvement allowed Western settlers to move from Maryland to Illinois.

Treaty of Ghent, James Madison

This treaty ended the war of 1812 but did not solve the problems that started it.

Textiles, James Madison

The Northern economy was becoming more dependent on this industry, with factories like Lowell Mill.

Federalist Party, James Madison

This political party took the wrong side in the war of 1812 and so died a quick death following the treaty.

New Orleans, James Madison

Andrew Jackson made a name for himself in this conflict with the British. News traveled slowly, so he didn't know that the war had been over for about two weeks. A great country song entitled "The 8th of January" commemorates Jackson's inventive use of Yankee ingenuity.

Missouri compromise (1820), James Monroe

Maine came in to the Union as a free state. Missouri came in as a slave state. The 36" 30' line was to divide slave from free states in the Louisiana purchase. Clay helped to preserve balance of slave and free states was preserved in the Senate. Name the agreement.

Monroe Doctrine, James Monroe

In this landmark foreign policy doctrine, European nations were told not to found new colonies in the Western Hemisphere.

Adams-Onis Treaty (1819), James Monroe

This agreement with Spain established the Western border of the U.S. and gave us Florida.

Gibbons v. Ogden (1824), James Monroe

The Marshall Court ruled that only the federal government could regulate interstate commerce in this "steamboat case."

Opening of Erie Canal (1825), James Monroe

This internal improvement in New York connected the grain farmers of the Upper Midwest to the port of New York via the Hudson River.

Panic of 1819, James Monroe

This depression hit the U.S. during Monroe's presidency, dampening the Era of Good Feelings somewhat.

McCullough v. Maryland (1819), James Monroe

The Marshall court ruled that states could not tax federal institutions because "The power to tax is the power to destroy."

Dartmouth v. Woodward (1819), James Monroe

The Marshall Court ruled that a charter is a contract, and states could not interfere with the rights of contracts.

South Carolina Exposition and Protest (1826), John Quincy Adams

John Calhoun wrote this document proposing that the Tariff of Abominations be nullified. He thought that Southern states' rights were being violated because the tariff was to raise revenue instead of to regulate trade, and it hit the South hardest.

Cotton gin, John Quincy Adams

Cotton was becoming the main cash crop of the South, leading loan increase in the number of slaves. Name the invention that caused this result.

Corrupt Bargain, John Q. Adams

Adams has allegedly made this unethical deal with Henry Clay. The terms are thought to have been: Clay got to be Secretary of State (and thus probably president), while Clay used his position as Speaker of the House to throw the Election of 1824 to Adams. Jackson had won the popular vote and was furious.

Temperance, John Q. Adams

Inspired by the Second Great Awakening and concerned about the negative influenced of alcohol on society, this social rearm movement began to ban drinking.

"Separate Spheres" John Q. Adams

This idea refers to the thought that household task like cooking, cleaning, and raising children were better suited to women, while earning a living outside the home were more suitable for men.

Tariff of 1828 (or Tariff of Abominations) John Quincy Adams

This tax on imports made Southerners angry because they made money on exports and preferred to buy cheap manufactured goods from Britain other than expensive ones from the North.

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