Theology: Hebrew Bible Study Words

Created by deborahcnm 

Upgrade to
remove ads

Iliff HB Fall Quarter Terms

1000 B.C.E.

End of early bronze age; David moved the temple to Jerusalem; beginning of the united monarchy

1200 B.C.E.

Israel enters Canaan (left Egypt/Exodus began in 1250BCE); Time of Moses; Collapse of Power; Iron Age-Late Bronze

586 B.C.E.

Fall of Judah to Babylon and destruction of the First Temple (in Jerusalem ... which is destroyed by Nebuchadnezzar); end of the Iron Age;

721 B.C.E.

Fall of Israel (to Assyria); Assyrian army captured Samaria and took the people of the northern kingdom into exile; destruction of Israel; Ahaz and son Hezekiah ruled at time of Samaria's fall

Aaron

In Exodus; older brother of Moses; a prophet; a Levite; first high priest of Israelites; dies before Moses; Antagonist of the Golden calf story

Abigail

Nabal's wife; averts disaster when Nabal refuses to take food to outlaw David: she brings it herself; she then married David when Nabal died and shared his adventurous life among the Philistines (1Sam 27:3). She was captured by the Amalekites and rescued by David;

Abimelek (judge)

Son of Gideon; After Gideon dies he declares and crowns himself King at Shechem and kills his brothers at Shechem (all in Judges 8); an evil spirit of YHWH kills him: his skull was crushed by a millstone thrown down by a woman on a tower; Abimelech ordered his armor bearer to kill him with a sword so that no one could say he had been killed by a woman (Jgs 9:53-57). —Complete Book of Who's Who in the Bible, The

Abraham (Abram)

found in Gen. 12-50; name changed from Abram to Abraham as part of covenant making in Gen 17; 1st patriarch/descendant of Shem; forefather of many tribes; Abrahamic religions: Islam/Judiasm/Christianity; married to Sarai/sarah; Covenant: promissory...a blessing/land/progeny

Absalom

Third son of King David; avenged the rape of his sister, Tamar, by his brother (Amnon) and was exiled; later returned to Jerusalem; revolted against his father and tried to be king; died in a battle when his head was caught by branches on a tree; struck down by men loyal to David

Adam

Genesis: Creation story; First human; created by God from earth; "Adamah"--ground/earth; children: Cain, Able, and Seth ; partner=Eve

Ahab

king of Israel; after father - Omri; wife was Jezebel; 1 Kings 16:29--20:40; worshipped Baal; challenged by Elijah and Micaiah ben Imlah (prophets)

Ahaz

King of Judah, and the son and successor of Jotham. His reign is described in 2 Kings 16; Isaiah 7-9; and 2 Chronicles 28; many say that he is the father of Immanuel (story of the sign given by a prophet); 732 BCE, during threat to Jerusalem, Ahaz appealed to Tiglath-Pileser III, the king of Assyria, for help. After Ahaz paid tribute to Tiglath-Pileser, (2 Kings 16:7-9) Tiglath-Pileser sacked Damascus and annexed Aram; ruled during time of Samaria's fall

Ammon

East of Jordan River; person Ammon is born to Lot and his daughter after destruction of Sodom and Gomorrah

Amos

Book: minor prophet of the latter prophets in HB; book contains judgment oracles; 750BCE; the prophet was from Tekoa, in Judah, south of Jerusalem; originally a sheep/cattle herder; the book deals not so much with religious observance as social justice: Amos 5:24-- addresses social justice (let justice roll down like waters ... ); he denunciates the ruling class; first prophet to use the term: "the day of the Lord" (vengence of HaShem?; used in apocalyptic lit as judgment day concept)

Anat (Anath)

Goddess of fertility, sexual love, hunting, and war; in Ugaritic texts she is the daughter of El and the sister and consort of Baal

Ark of the Covenant

Religious symbol of premonarchic confederation of the 12 tribes of Israel; later installed in the Temple in Jerusalem; a chest described in Exodus; contained tablets/10commandments; footstool of throne of God

Asenath

An Egyptian woman whom Pharaoh gave to Joseph, son of Jacob, to be his wife. Daughter of Potipherah. Found in Genesis

Asherah

Semitic mother Goddess; the wife/consort of Sumerian Anu or Ugaritic El; the oldest dieties of their pantheons; Referred to by the Deuteronomist as "cult object" (cultic tree images) and as a divine name

Ashkelon

City on the Mediterranean coast; oldest and largest seaport in Canaan, one of the "five cities" of the Philistines, north of Gaza and south of Jaffa (Yafa)

Assyria

Nation state centered on upper Tigris river; in northern Mesopotamia

Baal

The Canaanite storm-god, who in Ugaritic myth defeats Sea and Death; In the Bible, worship of Baal is condemned. Consort is Anat

Babylon (including site)

City in northern Mesopotamia; destruction in 689 BCE

Balaam

The seer; Numbers 22-24; non-Israelite prophet who is commissioned by King of Moab to curse the Israelites, camped at the northern border, but ended up blessing them instead. His story repeats elsewhere in Bible; verification; had a talking donkey

Bath-sheba

Mother of Solomon; she intervened with David when Adonijah tried to take the kingship as first born and managed to have the Kingship passed to Solomon; affair with David then married; found in 2 Samuel

Beer-sheba

Town founded by Israelites (10th century BC) after conquered by King David; lots of water; Abraham and Abimilech treaty here; Isaac built altar here; Jacob had stairway to heaven dream/here

Bethel

Sanctuary in the northern kingdom; Jacob worshipped here; E source

Book of the Twelve

Minor Prophets: (Pentateuch--Former and Latter Prophets --- Latter prophets are broken down to Major and Minor) ~~ the 12 minor prophets of the latter prophets; in modern scholarship, these are the 12 shorter, prophetic books from Hosea thru Malachi (shortest being Obadiah which is one chapter); Hosea-Joel-Amos-Obadiah-Jonah-Micah-Nahum-Habakkuk-Zephaniah-Haggai-Zechariah-Malachi

Canaanites

Inhabitants of Canaan; the name of promised land before the Israelite conquest; descendants of Noah's grandson, Canaan

Commandments

Contract or covenant between God and the people of Israel; made on Mt. Sinai; Sinai covenant; Exodus 20 and Deuteronomy 5; Original Hebrew: decalogue/10 words

Covenant Code

Collection of laws found in Exodus 20:22-23:19, identified as "the book of the covenant" (Ex 24:7); oldest collection of laws in the Bible; causuistic

Cyrus

Conquered Babylon in 539BCE; King of Persia -- chosen by HaShem to destroy Babylon and rebuild the Temple (Isaiah 44:28 - 45:1); allowed Jewish exiles to return; died in 530BCE

Dan (site)

City in the northernmost Kingdom of Israel

David

In court of Saul/David and Goliath; friend of Johnathon; 2nd king of the United Kingdom of Israel after God withdrew his favor from Saul; favoured as "man of God's heart"; moves Ark of Covenant to Jersusalem; Jesus is descendant; 2 Samuel 5:1-5; Psalms tell story

Dead Sea

Large body of water in Rift Valley into which Jordan River flows; high mineral content; no living things

Deborah

Judge and militaristic functions; one of 3 women named in the book of Judges (4-5); The song of Deborah (Judge 5:2-31) is account of a victory of northern tribes over the Canaanites

Decalogue/10

Greek origin/10 words; Ten commandments: text of the covenant between God and Israel on Mt. Sinai; 3 versions of Decalogue -- 2 in Exodus and mentioned in Deut.

Deuteronomistic History

According to modern scholars, the books of Joshua, Judges, 1+2Samuel, 1+2 Kings which formed a narrative story of Israel in the Promised Land. Produced in several editions from the late 8th to 6th century BCE by Deuteronomistic Historians who were informed by the principles of the book of Deuteronomy

Documentary hypothesis

Theory from Julius Wellhausen in 1878; Hypothetical sources of material in Pentateuch; J/E/D/P

Edom

Region of Southern Levant/south of Judea + Dead Sea/mountainous/Southern Jordan ; Esau's descendents settled here

Egypt

Exodus began in Egypt; south/west of Israel; northern African

El

The name of the creator diety in Ugaritic texts who presides over the divine council. It is also used of Yahweh. (Anat is daughter) (Asherah is consort)

Elijah

appears in the latter half of 1Kings; probably best known for his contest with the priests of Baal and Asherah as recorded in 1Kings18 -19; Mt. Carmel and Mt. Horeb (Sinai)...contest between Baal/Asherah/HaShem... and Ahab and Jezebel... Elijah challenges the priests to see who is the real god... priests try to get Baal to send down fire... Elijah mocks them, walks off, goes to the bathroom (comedic tones)... when the priests fail to get Baal to respond, Elijah returns to the scene and begins by pouring water on the alter (lots...partly b/c there is a terrible drought in the land at the time)... calls on HaShem and fire comes right away... now the priests of Baal are all killed... Jezebel is mad and calls for Elijah's life b/c now all her priests and prophets are dead... Elijah runs ... hides in a cave... God comes to him... (in the stillness)... this sends Elijah back to his ministry.. he's a zealot for HaShem but is a loner

Elisha

follows Elijah (after he dies...taken up into heavens)....Elijah's cloak is passed to Elisha... he does some miracles: makes ax head float/saves a child... miracle worker... (also see sensitivity ... 2Kings2 ... he's teased/mocked for being bald...sends a bear to kill the bullies) ....

Esau

Isaacs favourite son; tricked out of his birthright by brother Jacob (assisted by his mother, Rebekah); Genesis

Euphrates River

River in the fertile crescent / Mesopotamia; Northern Syria; boundry of levant; south/west of Tigris (Tigris is river on top in map)

Eve

in Genesis; first woman/second human created by God; mother of Cain, Abel, and Seth

Ezekiel

Prophet was a priest who had been exiled to Babylon during the first deportation by Nebuchadnezzar, along with other Judean elite in 597 BCE; his call to prophesy heralded by storm cloud(theophany--divine appearance; book is prose with strict chronological order;

Form Criticism

The study of relatively short literary units in literature and in folklore with regard to their forms or genres, their original settings, and their social, religious, and politcal functions. (Gunkel)

Former Prophets

In Jewish tradition, the first division of the Prophets comprising the books of Joshua, Judges, 1+2 Samuel and 1+2 Kings; Pentateuch: Prophets -- Former and Latter (Latter is further div. into Major and Minor)

Gideon

aka Jerubbaal; from the tribe of Manasseh; the subject of Judges 6-9; the Israelites had turned away from God (after 40 years of peace brought by Deborah's victory over Canaan) and were allowed to be oppressed by the neighboring Midianites and Amalekites. God chose Gideon, a young man from the tribe of Manasseh, to free the people of Israel and to condemn their worship of idols. He doubted and asked for 3 signs. His son is Abimelech.

Gilgal

An important place of worship and assembly during the pre-monarchic period, and some of the most important festivals of the tribal confederation took place there; name is derived from "circle" formed by 12 stones erected there when Joshua led Israel into the land; Installation of stones -- in Judea. Gilgal found in books of Joshua/Samuel/Hosea/Kings

Gilgamesh

Ruler of Uruk; Hero of Mesopotamian epic named for him; parallels the 2nd creation story; "Epic of...."; was distracted by Enkidu -- became friends; G. journeyed to meet Utnapishtim seeking immortality after Enkidu's death; meets Utnapishtim (hero of flood story); a snake steals his chance at immortality

Hagar

Servant of Sarai; 2nd wife of Abraham; Mother of Ishmael; found in Genesis 16; is sent away by Sarai in Gen 21; God hears Ishmael's cry and saves them

Haran

son of Terah/descendent of Shem; born in Ur; Abraham's brother--Lot's father; also an ancient city in upper Mesopotamia

Hezekiah

King of Judah in late 8th century BCE; known for making a tunnel in Jerusalem to protect city water supply in prep for Assyrian attack of 701BCE (diverted city water source from Gihon Spring in Kidron Valley to the Siloam Pool); received Gods help against Assyrians; reinstitued worship / fidelity to the Deut Code; father is Ahaz; son is Manasseh; appears in 2 Kings and 2 Chronicles

Holiness Code

Chapters 17-26 of the book of Leviticus; theme is the holiness of HaShem and His people; Separate source "H" is comparable to other collections of Biblical Law; like Covenant or Deuteronomic Code

Horeb

The name used in E and D sources for Mt. Sinai

Hosea

First book of the Latter Prophets' Minor or Book of 12; career third quarter of 8th century - shortly after Amos; book contains marriage metaphor to describe relationship between Israel and HaShem; wife was Gomer (she was unfaithful,yet he ultimately does not reject her)

Huldah

A prophetess mentioned briefly in 2 Kings 22, and 2 Chronicles 34; after the discovery of a book of the Law during renovations at Solomon's Temple, on the order of King Josiah, she is approached to get the Lord's opinion. Wife of Shallum; lived in Jerusalem; According to Rabbinic interpretation, Huldah and Deborah were the principal professed prophetesses in the Nevi'im (Prophets) portion of the Hebrew Bible, although other women were referred to as prophetesses.

Immanuel

Child born to a woman in Isaiah 7-- a sign given by a prophet to King Ahaz: trust in HaShem; connects to NT/birth of Jesus; Immanuel -- son of Isaiah?King Ahaz?or Hezekiah?

Isaac

Son of Abraham and Sarah; almost sacrificed by father Abraham; father of Jacob and Esau (his favourite); married to Rebekah (his father Abraham sent servant to find wife; found Rebekah at well); never left Canaan

Isaiah

One of the longest books in Bible/first of the Latter prophets -- Major; different time frames: first Isaiah = chp 1-39 Isaiah in jerusalem, second or Deutero = chp 40-55 6th century BCE, third or trito = chp. 56-66 a century later; book refers to Immanuel (7:14) -- prophesy to Jesus; some believe this child, Immanuel, was born to Isaiah and his wife; person Isaiah was a court prophet; wife a prophet also

Ishmael

In Genesis; Son of Hagar and Abraham; saved by God in the desert after his mother is sent away by Sarai (Hagar was Sarai's servant and Abrahams 2nd wife); circumcised at 13yo as part of covenant; Ishmaelites

Israel (person, place, political)

New name for Jacob in Gen 32:28; Jacob's twelve sons became Israelites; promised land

Jabbok

aka Zarqa; tributary /river - flows into the Jordan; Jacob crossed Jabbok on his way back to Canaan from Haran and struggled here with an angel/God

Jacob (person, place, political)

Patriarch; son of Isaac and Rebekah; stole birthright from brother, Esau (Genesis); covenant with God; given the name Israel after wrestling w/ an angel/God near Jabbok river on the journey back to Canaan from Haran; husband of Leah and Rachel (his favourite); twelve sons and one daughter (Dinah); with Rachel had Joseph and Benjamin

Jael/Yael

One of three women named in Judges; played a role with Deborah in Israelite victory.. Lured Sisera (fleeing Canaanite general) into her tent and killed him with a tent peg

JEDP

the sources in Documentary hypothesis; J = Yahwist/Jahwist (found in Gen thru Num)--human/promises; E = Elohist (found in Gen-Num) -- northern Israel and prophecy; D =Deuteronomic (exclusive to Deut); core is law; law book found at temple/Josiah - King of Judah; P = Priestly (Gen-Num/end of Deut) -- legalistic/ritual/religions

Jeremiah

Placed after book of Isaiah; A prophet who had some resistance to his call from God...claimed to be just a child; lived late 7th early 6th century BCE; Jeremiah's ministry was active from the thirteenth year of Josiah, king of Judah (626 BC), until sometime after the fall of Jerusalem and the destruction of Solomon's Temple in 587 BC.[30] This period spanned the reigns of five kings of Judah: Josiah, Jehoahaz, Jehoiakim, Jehoichin, and Zedekiah.

Jericho

City located near the Jordan River; where the Israelites returned after Egypt -led by Joshua- story of Rahab; Assyrians invaded from north-then Babylonians-city fell

Jeroboam

An administrator in Solomon's court who rebelled and became the first king of the North Kingdom of Israel (king: 928-907 BCE); He built non-Yahwistic shrines in the cities of Dan and Bethel (new/old calves); His name translates as "He pleads the people's cause"; BUT: Jeroboam II is a king of Israel in the 8th century (750 B.C.E.) and he is a contemporary of Amos

Jerusalem

David made this city the center/capitol of his kingdom; City of David; transfer of ark of convenant here made it City of God; Zion; Temple built here

Jezebel

the Tyrian princess who married Ahab, king of Israel, discussed in 1 Kings 18; responsible for eliminating rival prophets of YHWH; control!; thrown from a window to her death in 2 Kings during Jehu's revolt (death seen as curse for violation of covenant)

Jordan River

River which flows from Sea of Galilee (Chinnereth) to the Dead Sea (Salt Sea); Israelites crossed to get to Promised Land/parted; Jesus baptized in it

Joseph

son of Jacob; sold by brothers; dreamer/interpreter; later: most powerful man in Egypt; returned to Canaan/Shechem

Joseph Novella

Self contained story within Genesis 37: 2-36 to 39:1-47; contains plot/action-- moves Israel from Canaan to Egypt where Exodus will begin (gen 37-50); 12 brothers, travel with Joseph and instead of killing him/sell as slave/he goes to Egypt/becomes a great leader; E sources; term applied by Gunkel

Joshua

In Numbers 27: 12-23 Successor of Moses, by divine appointment; led the Israelites into the promised land after Moses' death; Joshua is also a book of the Bible: a Former Prophet (with Judges, 1 + 2 Samuel and 1 + 2 Kings); considered to begin the Deuteronomistic History

Josiah

Became king at age 8, -- ruled for 3 decades 640-609 BCE; account is found in 2 Kings 22-23; rule was devoted to religious reform based on "book of law" (Deuteronomy) found in temple archives; exclusive worship of HaShem; loved by Deut. Historians "walked in the way of his father"; attempted to block Egyptian advance at Megiddo in 609BCE; died here

Judah (person, place, political)

PERSON: Jacob's son; ancestor of the tribe of Judah; son of Leah; was hesitant to give his third son to marry Tamar so she posed as a prostitute and ended up having Judah's child (in Gen); PLACE: southern counterpart to northern kingdom of Israel; later known as Judea POLITICAL: became the dominant tribe of the south; after the death of Solomon, no longer a united monarchy--became 2 separate kingdom; Israel is ruled by Jeroboam and Judah in south is ruled by Rehoboam

Korah

A Levite who led a revolt against Moses (in Numbrs 16:1). Claimed that since the entire people of Yahweh were holy people-- special status of Moses and Aaron was unjustified.

Latter Prophets

Books named after individual prophets; sometimes divided into Major and Minor; Major: (longer books) Isaiah, Jeremiah, Ezekial and Minor: (12 shorter books) Hosea, Joel, Amos, Obadiah, Jonah, Micah, Nahum, Habakkuk, Zephaniah, Haggai, Zechariah, Malachi (in Jewish tradition- second part of Prophets)

Leah

Daughter of Laban/sister of Rachel; co-wife with Rachel of Jacob; mother of 6 sons and Dinah

Literary Criticism

Used to be synonymous with source criticism. Difference is that while both pay close attention to literary features of the text (style, vocab, repetition, contradictions or inconsistancies) the goals are different: literary criticism finds meaning in the literary or surface structure of the text AS IT IS... while source looks out how it came to be

LXX

aka Septuagint; Ancient Greek translation of the HB; it was originally the designation for the Koine Greek translation of the Pentateuch but came in time to refer to Greek translation of the OT; Septua /70: story is that 72 3rd century historians told to write and all came up with same thing (miracle!)

Manasseh (king)

Son of Hezekiah; King of Judah for half century (longer than any king in Davidic dynasty; yet little mention of it--brief in 2 Kings 21; Deutoronomists hated him for his apostasy); in 2 Chronicles he is arrested by king of Assyria and detained in Babylon --repents of his apostasy and is returned to his throne by divine intervention;

Masoretic Text

The traditional medieval text of the Hebrew Bible; This is the authoratative Hebrew text of the Jewish Bible and is regarded as the 1st official version of the Tanakh by Judaism. MT is the basis for translations of OT in protestant Bibles.

Megiddo

A major city in northern Israel that b/c of its strategic location was the site of many battles; in apocalyptic literature, it can be called Armegeddon and is the site of the final battle between the forces of good and evil.

Mesopotamia

word is of Greek origin: the land in the middle of two rivers; fertile flood plain between the Tigris and Euphrates rivers (norhtern Syria and Iraq)

Micah

Prophet and contemporary of Isaiah; message is geared toward general audience; oracles of judgment against Judah and oracles of restoration/lament/hope; earlier written by Micah/later parts of book by redactors; from town of Moresheth-gath in southern Judah;

Micaiah ben Imlah

prophet in 1Kings22; he speaks to Ahab (king of Israel) who has allied w/ Jehosephat (king of Judah) to fight Aram over Rama Gilead--Jehoshephat wants to be sure he has divine approval--after other prophets this prophet is called: he tells them they are going to die ... notes that there was a false prophecy placed on the priests/prophets... he is thrown in jail... Ahab/Jehosephat go anyway... and Ahab is killed after all... prophetic truth telling

Miriam

Considered a prophet; she is the sister of Moses and Aaron; appears in Exodus; Moses placed in water; watched on as Pharaoh's daughter discovered Moses and then suggested her own mother /Moses mother as a wet nurse for the baby; Agent of life; danced across Red Sea; singing

Moab

Lots son from Lot and oldest daughter after destruction of Sodom; Moabites; mountainous strip of land in Southern Levant -- Jordan

Moses

Prophet; hidden by his Hebrew mother to avoid death and found by pharaoh's daughter; killed Egyptian slave master and fled; saw God in burning bush; led the exodus; got the commandments

Nathan

A prophet who lived in the time of Kings David and Solomon; appears in Samuel, Kings, and Chronicles; 1000BCE; reprimanded David for affair with BathSheba; informed David of Adonijah's plan to take Kingship

Nebuchadnezzar

King of Babylon 604-562BCE; (monarch of the Neo-Babylonian empire); Laid siege to Jerusalem, eventually capturing the city, razing the royal quarter, deporting the elite and destroying the Temple in 586 BCE; created the "hanging gardens" in Babylon / terraces; neutralized Egypt and largely restricted Egypt to its own borders

Nineveh (site)

Ancient Assyrian city on the eastern banks of Tigris; was the capitol of Assyria

Omri

King of Israel (northern kingdom); 876-869BCE; conquered and held down the Moabites ; "sinned more than all of them" and encouraged idol worship (1 Kings 16)

Pentateuch

Word of Greek origin meaning "five books" used by modern scholars to refer to the first 5 books of the Bible; Genesis, Exodus, Leviticus, Numbers, Deuteronomy

Pharaoh

Ancient Egyptian rulers/kings

Philistines

One group of the "sea people"; In the late 2nd millenium BCE, having failed to conquer the Egyptians, they settled on the SE coast of the Meditarranean where they vied with Israel for the control of Canaan; (name Palestine derived from this word)

Primeval history

Book of Genesis, chap. 4-11; after creation to the birth of Abram

Puah

A midwife who helped prevent genocide of Hebrew male children in Egypt (Exodus 1: 15-22)

Rachel

Genesis 29; Sister of Leah; Wife of Jacob; Mother of Joseph and Benjamin; a prophet; she was Jacobs favourite and he worked for 7 years for her father Laban, married sister Leah and then worked 7 more years to marry Rachel

Rahab

In Joshua 2:1-7; she is the prostitue in Jericho who deceives the King and helps the Israelite spies by hiding them and then sending them to safety; puts a red rope in window to mark her home; saves her whole family; for Deuteronomic Historians, she is a model believer tho Canaanite

Re(e)d Sea

Body of water the Israelites crossed in Exodus from Egypt; Sea of Reeds-- Septuagint (ancient Greek translation of HB) translates it to Red Sea

Rebekah

Wife of Isaac; mother of Jacob and Esau (jacob was her favourite and she helped him steal birthright from Esau); Abraham sent his servant to his hometown to find a wife for Isaac ... found Rebekah at the well

Redaction Criticism

Method of biblical study which examines the intentions of the editors, or redactors who compiled the Biblical texts out of earlier source materials. Presupposes results of source and form criticism and builds on this.

Rehoboam

Solomon's son; after Solomon's death he ruled the southern (Judah) part of the now divided united monarchy (928-911 BCE)--first king of divided kingdom; engaged in systematic defensive buildup, fortified major cities on his border; Though advised by his father's advisors to listen to the people and grant their requests, he chose to listen to his own advisors and made even harsher demands on the people. His actions caused rebellion with the 10 northern tribes and the divide of the united monarchy. During his reign, 1 Kings notes that the people became infatuated with idolatry and the worship practices of heathen-idols; succeeded by son Abijam

Royal Theology

In modern scholarship, the term for the complex of ideas associated with the Davidic monarchy, including the Davidic covenant; ideas derived from, supported and shaped the institution of the monarchy; Main feature: King was chosen by God and had a special and mutual relationship of obligation with God; Though most likely originally a conditional covenant between God and king, it turns unconditional and eternal, which was revolutionary in ancient Israel's self-understanding and a deliberate effort to replace the premonarchic understanding of the relationship between Israel as a whole and its God.

Samaria

Region; capitol of northern Kingdom of Israel from the early 9th century to 722BCE,when it fell to the Assyrians; founded by Omri in 9th century BCE

Samson

In Judges 13-16; Third to last of judges of the ancient Israelites mentioned in the Tanakh; His mom (unnamed) is barren, prayed for a baby; got Samson; he falls in love with a Philistine woman/marries; then meets Delilah; she discovers the secret to his great strength is his hair and she cuts it off

Samuel

Idealized: priest, judge and prophet; 1 Samuel; God led him to Saul and David to be kings: Last of the Hebrew judges / first of prophets inside the land of Israel; born in Shiloh; after weaned mother, Hannah, takes him to temple under care of Eli;

Sarah (Sarai)

Wife of Abram/Abraham; Mother of Issac; Changed name from Sarai to Sarah as a covenant with God; Genesis 17

Sargon II

Third king in 8th century Assyria after Tiglath-Pileser and Shalmaneser V; reign from 722-705 BCE; when he died Ahaz' son, the Judean king Hezekiah asserted independence -- Sargon's successor Sennacherib responded by attacking in force/Judah had no choice but to resubmit to Assyrian rule.

Saul

First king of the united Kingdom of Israel; begins reign about 1020 B.C.E.; Saul stories (1 Sam 9-11); Saul was the son of Kish, of the family of the Matrites, and a member of the tribe of Benjamin, one of the twelve Tribes of Israel; anointed by the prophet Samuel; suicidally fell on his sword in battle against the Philistines at Mount Gilboa, during which three of his sons were also killed. Succeeded by David. Never in God's good graces; Samuel probably set him up for failure; to make way for David.

Sennacherib

King of Assyria after Sargon II (705-681); son of Sargon; account of Sennacherib's siege of Jerusalem begins with the destruction of the Northern Kingdom of Israel and its capital Samaria...from this the ten northern tribes came to be known as the Ten Lost Tribes, because as recorded in II Kings 17, they were carried off and settled with other peoples as was the Assyrian policy. II Kings 18-19 (and parallel passage II Chronicles 32:1-23) details Sennacherib's attack on Judah in 701BCE and capital Jerusalem.

Septuagint

LXX - 70 - Septua; the ancient Greek translation of the Hebrew scriptures; made beginning of 3rd century BCE; widely used among Greek speaking Jews of the easter Meditarranean world.

Servant Songs

In 2nd Isaiah a group of four poems that speak fo a servant of Yahweh (songs of the servant Yahweh); Isaiah 42:1-4, 49:1-6; 50: 4-11; and 52:13-53:12; (1892- Bernhard Duhm)

Shalmaneser V

King of Assyria in 727-722 following Tiglath-PileserIII; 2 Kings 17-18 he is described as the conqueror of Samaria and as sending its inhabitants into exile; (king of babylon?)

Shechem

Important tribal center during the pre-monarchic period and one of the principal cities of the northern kingdom of Israel after death of Solomon in late 10th century BCE

Shiloh

City destroyed by the Philistines; mid-11th century BCE (excavations); appears in Judges; Samuel was a baby here; Ark moved from here to Jerusalem

Shiphrah

In Exodus 1:15-22; midwife with Puah who prevented genocide of Hebrew male children in Egypt; active in civil disobedience; agents of life

Sinai

Mountain on which God revealed himself to Moses and made the Covenant with Israel

Solomon

Second child of David and BathSheba; aka Jedediah (beloved of Yahweh); King after his father; 3rd king of th monarchy (in Samuel/Kings)

Source Criticism

Attempt to understand/name the sources used by the author and/or redactor of final text by examining its literary features; how text came to be; used to be synonymous with literary criticism which focuses on text as is not how it came to be.

Syro-Ephraimitic coalition

735-732BCE Israel and Syria join together to form the Syro-Ephraimitic coalition against Assyria (II Kgs 15:29-30, 37; 16:5-9; Isa 7:1-8:8; II Chr 28:5-21); leaders include Kings Rezin of Damascus, Pekah of Israel; want Ahaz of Judah to join and he says no- in Isaiah 7 Ahaz is checking the defences of Jerusalem when Isaiah comes to speak with him (Ahaz is checking...he's worried about Pekah and Rezin and the Coalition...he thinks they'll attack Jerusalem/ kill him and put a puppet in place and take his army and resources of Judah to fight Assyria) ....

Tabernacle

Tent of meeting: moveable shrine that served as the Israelites place of worship after Exodus from Egypt (described in Exodus 26). Contained Ark of Covenant

Tanak

Torah/a/Noviim/a/Ketuvim -- An acronym used for the Hebrew Bible in Jewish tradition; formed from the 1st letter of the Hebrew names of its 3 parts: the Torah, the Noviim(prophets) and the Ketuvim (the writings).

Tent of Meeting

Tabernacle: moveable shrine that served as the Israelites place of worship after Exodus from Egypt (Ex 26). Contained Ark of Covenant

Tetragrammaton

YHWH (hebrew letters); often pronounced as Yahweh; word of Greek origin meaning "4 letters" -- referring to name for God of Israel

Tiglath-Pilesar III

Assyrian King from 745 to 727BCE; ruthless; conducts 3yr. seige Arpad; Ahaz sends an emissary to Tiglath-Pileser to ask for help against the coalition... Respond in 734bce; and comes to aid of Ahaz but, heavy burden/tribute

Tigris River

Eastern member of 2 great rivers that boundary Mesopotamia; the other is Euphrates

Torah

First of 3 parts of Hebrew Bible comprising 5 books of Moses (Gen-Deut); Torah means teaching/law

Tradition Criticism

Seeks to reconstruct the history of the transmission of the various individual traditions and tradition complexes found in HB/OT. Analysis of text in terms of the process by which Biblical traditions passed from stage-to-stage to final form; especially from oral to written. Looks at how sources were combined into larger units. Study of stages in the development of a genre, theme, or concept prior to its incorporation into Biblical text

Tyre

Phoenician city on the Mediterrainean -north of Israe's intl boundary; in poetic oracles in Ez26-28 destruction of this city by Nebuchadnezzar is foretold; built on island-linked to Garden of Eden;

United Monarchy

During the 10th century BCE the 10 northern tribes of Israel and the southern tribe of Judah were united under the rule of David and his son Solomon, both of whom were called "king of Israel"; when Solomon died in 928 BCE the united kingdom of Israel was split into northern: Israel and the southern: Judah

Ur

an ancient city of Sumer located on a former channel of the Euphrates River; home of Haran and Abram;

Utnapishtim

Hero of the flood in the Gilgamesh epic; he is granted immortality; Gilgamesh journeys to meet him so as to be granted immortality; told to get a plant from bottom of the sea but a serpent steals it; 2700BCE

Vulgate

Late 4th century Latin translation of the Bible; work of St. Jerome

Zephaniah

one of the Minor Prophets; consists of a series of divine pronouncements of judgment on Judah and Jerusalem and on the nations, including Assyria; concludes with a message of hope, when Zion's fortunes will be restored; motif: the day of the Lord, which is a day of doom, primarily for Judah, but also for surrounding nations and the world

Zion

The name of Jerusalem, used especially in poetic texts; word is first found in 2 Samuel 5:7 so dates it to 630-540 BCE

Please allow access to your computer’s microphone to use Voice Recording.

Having trouble? Click here for help.

We can’t access your microphone!

Click the icon above to update your browser permissions above and try again

Example:

Reload the page to try again!

Reload

Press Cmd-0 to reset your zoom

Press Ctrl-0 to reset your zoom

It looks like your browser might be zoomed in or out. Your browser needs to be zoomed to a normal size to record audio.

Please upgrade Flash or install Chrome
to use Voice Recording.

For more help, see our troubleshooting page.

Your microphone is muted

For help fixing this issue, see this FAQ.

Star this term

You can study starred terms together

NEW! Voice Recording

Create Set