Heat transfer via electromagnetic waves.
Heat transfer via direct contact with another object.
Heat transfer via a constantly moving fluid, like air or water.
Heat transfer from a liquid turning into a gas. This is the only heat loss mechanism that can be used in high temperatures, as other mechanisms make the body gain heat from the environment.
Double heat load
When exercising, sweat is excreted from the body to lose heat. This sweat comes from plasma in the blood. The blood becomes thicker, and can't get to the capillaries in the periphery, and is instead prioritised to the working muscles. This means that less heat can be lost.
The reduced plasma volume due to sweating decreases the stroke volume. In order to keep up the cardiac output, the heart rate must increase.
A condition marked by dizziness and nausea and weakness caused by depletion of body fluids and electrolytes.
A life-threatening condition where the body can no longer regulate heat, and the core temperature can keep rising to fatal temperatures.
Being excessively hydrated. Useful before activities in the heat to keep the level of sweating up for longer and hold off double heat load.
Techniques like ice jackets, ingesting ice and cold water immersion are important for cooling the body before exercising in the heat.
Spending time training in the heat to decrease the time it takes to start sweating, and increase the rate of sweat and plasma volume. This can be done by training in a hotter climate, in a climate chamber, or in a hotter part of the day.
Constriction of blood vessels to reduce blood flow to the periphery
Widening of the blood vessels that allows for increased blood flow.
Rapid contraction of muscles, requiring energy and therefore creating heat, to warm the body.
Causing hair to stand on end by the contractions of little muscles at the base of the hair, thereby trapping an insulation layer of air near the body.
The relaxing of the little muscles under the skin that cause hairs to stand on end, that result in the hair laying down and allowing convection currents to increase heat loss.
A measure of cooling combining temperature and wind speed.
A lack of oxygen. Immediate adaptations to hypoxia include hyperventilation, decreased plasma volume, and increased heart rate. Long term adaptations included an increased red blood cell count, increased haemoglobin, capillarisation, mitochondria and aerobic enzymes.
Live high train low
The statement applied to most altitude training, where athletes rest at altitude and train at sea level, as training at altitude is likely to cause detraining.