AP US History Timeline Unit 6 (ch.12&13)

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Fletcher v. Peck

Date: 1810
Description/Significance:
This notorious case happened when a Georgia legislature granted land in the Yazoo River country to private speculators because of bribery. Then, the next legislature canceled it and established more secured protection for private property. This is significant in that it was one of earliest assertions of the right of the Supreme Court to invalidate state laws in conflict with the federal Constitution. Also, it bolstered judicial barriers against democratic or demagogic attacks on property rights.

War of 1812

Date: 1812
Description/Significance:
This war was fought between British and the Americans because the British had seized American ships and impressed the sailors into joining the British army. Even though the this war resulted as a relative draw, this event was significant in that it showed American's willingness to defend its interest by using war and military and it gave the young nation respect from European powers.

Hartford Convention

Date: 1814
Description/Significance:
This convention was issued when the capture of New Orleans was just about to happen. Massachusetts issued a call for a convention at Hartford, Connecticut. This convention consisted of Federalists from five New England states (Massachusetts, Connecticut, Rhode Island, New Hampshire and Vermont). Those federalists opposed the War of 1812 and resented the strength of Southern and Western interests in Congress and the White House. This convention was significant in that it was the most spectacular manifestation of Federalist discontent.

Battle of New Orleans

Date: 1815
Description/Significance:
This battle was the final battle of the War of 1812. It resulted as a victory of the American forces. This event was significant in that it restored American's confidence and that it triggered strong nationalism among Americans.

Treaty of Ghent

Date: 1815
Description/Significance:
This treaty ended the War of 1812 with a draw. This treaty is significant in that it restored the borders that existed prior to the war and that Americans actually managed to not lose the war and it showed growing power of the new nation. However, it failed to address any of injustice that first dragged America into the war.

Tariff of 1816

Date: 1816
Description/Significance:
This tariff is significant in that it was a first protective tariff in American history. The primary purpose of this tariff was to protect New England manufacturers from the inflow of British goods after the War of 1812.

"Era of Good Feelings"

Date: 1816
Description/Significance:
This era is significant in that it was a period when there was only one-party rule of Republicans during James Monroe's presidency. However, this era wasn't always full of good feelings. During this period, there were several issues as well. For example, there were bitter conflicts over internal improvements, slavery, and the national bank.

Rush-Bagot Agreement

Date: 1817
Description/Significance:
This agreement was signed by Britain and United States. Through this agreement, there was a establishment of strict limits on naval armaments in the Great Lakes. This was significant in that it was a first step in the full demilitarization on border between U.S. and Canada. This was completed in the 1870s.

Panic of 1819

Date: 1819
Description/Significance:
This term is a name for the period when there was severe financial crisis due to the efforts of the Bank of the United States to curb overspeculation on western lands. However, these efforts actually disproportionately affected the poorer classes, especially in the West. This event is significant in that it later gives rise to Jacksonian Democracy.

Tallmadge Amendment

Date: 1819
Description/Significance:
This amendment was a failed proposal to prohibit the importation of slaves into Missouri territory and the objective of this proposal was to lead to gradual emancipation. Southerners strongly opposed this amendment because they thought that this was a threat to the sectional balance between North and South. This is significant in that it showed the intense sectional tensions between slave South and free North over the control of the West.

McCulloch v. Maryland

Date: 1819
Description/Significance:
This was a Supreme Court case which strengthened the power of federal authority and confirmed the constitutionality of the Bank of the United States in ways such as stating that the State of Maryland did not have power to tax the bank. This is significant in that it bolstered the power of the federal government at the expense of the states.

Dartmouth College v. Woodward

Date: 1819
Description/Significance:
This was a Supreme Court case which maintained Dartmouth University's original charter against changes proposed by the New Hampshire state legislature. This is significant in that it protected corporations from domination by state governments.

Adams-Onis Treaty

Date: 1819
Description/Significance:
This treaty is also known as Purchase of Florida or Transcontinental Treaty. Through this treaty, Spain ceded Florida and its claims to Oregon to America in exchange for America's abandonment of its claims on Texas, which soon became part of independent Mexico. This is significant in that it reflects strong nationalism after War of 1812 toward foreign policies.

Land Act of 1820

Date: 1820
Description/Significance:
This act is significant in that it triggered the settlement of the Northwest and Missouri territories. This act encouraged those settlements by lowering the price of public land and also by prohibiting the purchase of federal acreage on credit. This eliminated one of the causes of the Panic of 1819.

Missouri Compromise

Date: 1820
Description/Significance:
This compromise let Missouri to enter as a slave state. However this compromise preserved the balance between North and South in ways such as carving free-soil Maine out of Massachusetts and prohibiting slavery from territories acquired in the Louisiana Purchase (north of the line of 36'30'). This is significant in that it was one of many unhappy events that occurred during the Era of Good Feelings. Regardless of this shaky compact between intense tension of north and south, Monroe's popularity was so strong.

Cohens v. Virginia

Date: 1821
Description/Significance:
This was a case that reinforced federal supremacy in ways such as establishing the right of the Supreme Court to review decisions of state supreme courts in all questions involving the powers of the federal government. This is significant in that it gave John Marshall an opportunity to defend the federal authority.

Monroe Doctrine

Date: 1823
Description/Significance:
This doctrine was delivered by President James Monroe. Through this doctrine, he warned European powers to refrain from seeing any new territories in the Americas. However, America highly lacked the power to back up Monroe's statement, which was actually enforced by the British who sought unrestricted access to Latin American markets. This is significant in that America declared its non-colonization and nonintervention from foreign powers.

Gibbons v. Ogden

Date: 1824
Description/Significance:
This was a suit that grew out of an attempt by the New York State to grant a private concern a monopoly of waterborne commerce between New York and New Jersey. However, Marshall reasserted that Congress had the sole power to regulate interstate commerce. This is significant in that it struck states' rights and upheld sovereign powers of the federal government.

Russo-American Treaty of 1824

Date: 1824
Description/Significance:
This treaty is significant in that Monroe's Doctrine was actually being applied in reality. It established a fixed the line of 54'40' as the southernmost boundary of Russian holdings in North America.

"Corrupt Bargain" of 1824

Date: 1824
Description/Significance:
This is a term for unproven deal between presidential candidate John Quincy Adams and Henry Clay. Their deal was to throw the election which was decided by the House of Representatives in Adam's favor. After Adams was elected as president, Clay became the secretary of the state. Even though it was unproven, this accusation became the rallying cry for supporters of Andrew Jackson. This is significant in that it marked the last of old-style election.

Election of 1828

Date: 1828
Description/Significance: 1828
This election was a rematch between presidential candidate John Quincy Adams and Andrew Jackson. Even though Jackson lost in election of 1824, with support of Martin Van Buren, Jackson gained support from the South and New York and easily won the election. This is significant in that it brought strength to Democratic Party and marked the coming of Jacksonian Democracy from First Party System to Second Party System.

Tariff of Abominations

Date: 1828
Description/Significance:
This is significant in that it unprecedentedly placed high duties on imports. In return, Southerners storngly opposed this Tariff. They argued that it actually hurt Southern farmers who did not enjoy the protection of tariffs but were forced to pay higher prices for manufactures.

Indian Removal Act

Date: 1830
Description/Significance:
This act ordered the removal of Indian tribes in the east of the Mississippi to newly established Indian territory in the west of Arkansas and Missouri. This significant in that the Indian tribes were forcibly unable to resist eviction by American forces even after prolonged legal or military battles.

Bank War

Date: 1832
Description/Significance:
This was a battle between president Andrew Jackson versus congressional supporters of the bank of United States over issue of the bank's renewal. However, as a president, Jackson vetoed the bank bill. He argued that the bank favored moneyed interests at the expense of western farmers. This is significant in that it showed one of many veto Jackson made.

Worchester v. Georgia

Date: 1832
Description/Significance:
This was a court case when U.S. Supreme Court asserted that the Indian tribes have national sovereignty and the right of self-determination. Thus, the Supreme Court rejected Georgia's conviction of Samuel Worcester for helping Indians without state's permission and stated that Georgia's conviction was unconstitutional. This is significant in that it reduced the power of the state and at the same time gave sovereignty to Indian tribes but Marshall stated that Indian tribes are "domestic" and "dependent" nation under the guardianship of U.S. which meant that they still have to follow Indian Removal Act.

Compromise Tariff of 1833

Date: 1833
Description/Significance:
This compromise main purpose was to resolve the nullification crisis by providing that tariffs be lowered gradually, over a period of ten years to 1816 levels. This showed that it opposed to the protectionist New England and middle states while it was favored by the South.

Force Bill

Date: 1833
Description/Significance:
This bill was passed by Congress with the compromise tariff as a face-saving device. The Carolinians called this "Bloody Bill". It authorized the president to use the military to collect federal tariff duties. This is significant in that it gave the President power and right to close ports or harbors at his will.

Battle of the Alamo

Date: 1836
Description/Significance:
This happened at the fortress in Texas where 400 American volunteers were slain by Santa Anna. This event is significant in that "Remember the Alamo" became a battle cry in support of Texan independence.

Specie Circular

Date: 1836
Description/Significance:
Jackson authorized United States treasury to issue this decree which required all public lands to be purchased with hard or metallic currency. This was issued after small state banks flooded the market with unreliable paper currency, triggering land speculation in the west. This is significant in that it actually brought financial panic and crash in 1837.

Panic of 1837

Date: 1837
Description/Significance:
This is a term naming a significant economic crisis that was triggered by bank failures, which elevated grain prices, and Jackson's efforts to curb overspeculation on western lands and transportation improvements. In order to solve this crisis, president Martin Van Buren proposed Divorce Bill which pulled treasury funds out of the banking system altogether, contracting the credit supply.

Trail of Tears

Date: 1838
Description/Significance:
This was a term describing the event when 15,000 Cherokee Indians from their Georgia and Alabama homes were forced to move to new Indian Territory. This is significant due to its result: 4,000 Cherokee died on this cruel journey.

Election of 1840

Date: 1840
Description/Significance:
This election happened 1840. This was when President Martin Van Buren was running for re-election against an economic depression and William Henry Harrison unified Whig Party for the first time and his "log cabin campaign". With their slogan "Tippecanoe and Tyler, too," the Whigs easily won Van Buren in this election. This election is significant in that it marked the victory of Whig Party over Democratic Party.

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