Language of Medicine- Chapter 14

70 terms by fischer42 

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acquired immunity

production of antibodies and lymphocytes after exposure to an antigen

adenoids

mass of lymphatic tissue in the nasopharynx

antibody

protein produced by B cell lymphocytes to destroy antigens

antigen

substance that the body recognizes as foreign; evokes an immune response. Most antigens are proteins or protein fragments found on the surface of bacteria, viruses, or organ transplant tissue cells.

axillary nodes

lymph nodes in the neck region

B cell (B lymphocytes)

lymphocyte that originates in the bone marrow and transforms int a plasma cell to secrete antibodies.

cervical nodes

lymph nodes in the neck region

complement system

proteins in the blood that help antibodies and T cells kill their target

cytokines

proteins that aid and regulate the immune response. examples are interferons and interleukins

cytotoxic t cell, CD8+ cell, or T8 cell

t lymphocyte that directly kills foreign cells

dendritic cell

specialized macrophage that digests foreign cells and helps B and T cells to mark antigens for destruction

helper T cell, CD4+ cell, or T4 cell

lymphocyte that aids b cells and cytotoxic t cells in recognizing antigens and stimulating antibody production

immunity

body's ability to resist foreign organisms and toxins. This includes natural and acquired.

immunoglobulins

antibodies (gamma globulins) such as IgA, IgE, IgG, IgM, and IgD that are secreted by plasma cells in response to the presence of an antigen

immunotherapy

use of immune cells, antibodies, or vaccines to treat or prevent disease

inguinal nodes

lymph nodes in the groin region

interferons

proteins (cytokines) secreted by T cells to aid and regulate the immune response

interleukins

proteins (cytokines) that stimulate the growth of B and T lymphocytes

interstitial fluid

fluid in the spaces between cells. This fluid becomes lymph when it enters lymph capillaries

lymph

thin, watery fluid found within lymphatic vessels and collected from tissues throughout the body

lymph capillaries

tiniest lymphatic vessels

lymphoid organs

lymph nodes, spleen, and thymus gland

lymph node

a collection of stationary solid lymphatic tissue along lymph vessels

lymph vessel

carrier of lymph throughout the body; empty lymph into veins in the upper part of the chest

macrophage

large phagocyte found in lymph nodes and other tissues of the body

mediastinal nodes

lymph nodes in the area between the lungs in the thoracic cavity

monoclonal antibody

antibody produced in a laboratory to attack antigens and to destroy cells. it is useful in immunotherapy.

natural immunity

protection that an individual inherits to fight infection.

plasma cell

lymphocyte that produces and secretes antibodies. it originates from B lymphocytes.

right lymphatic duct

large lymphatic vessel in the chest that receives lymph from the upper right part of the body

spleen

organ near the stomach that produces, stores, and eliminates blood cells

suppressor T cell or Treg (regularoty T cell)

lymphocyte that inhibits the activity of B and T lymphocytes

T cell (T lymphocyte)

lymphocyte that originates in the bone marrow but matures in the thymus gland; it acts directly on antigens to destroy them or produce chemicals (cytokines) such as interferons and interleukins that are toxic to antigens

tolerance

the ability of T lymphocytes to recognize nd accept the body's own antigens as "self" or friendly. Once tolerance is established, the immune system will not react against the body

thoracic duct

large lymphatic vessel in the chest that receives lymph from below the diaphragm and from the left side of the body above the diaphragm; it empties the lymph into veins in the upper chest

thymus gland

organ in the mediastinum that conditions T lymphocytes to react to foreign cells and aids in the immune response

tonsils

mass of lymphatic tissue in the back of the oropharynx

toxin

poison; a protein produced by certain bacteria, animals, or plants

vaccination

exposure of an individual to a foreign protein (antigen) that provokes an immune response. The response will destroy any cell that losses the antigen on its surface and will protect against infection

vaccin

weakened or killed microorganisms, toxins, or other proteins given to induce immunity to infection or disease

immun/o

protection (root)

lymph/o

lymph (root)

lymphaden/o

lymph node (gland) (root)

splen/o

spleen (root)

thym/o

thymus gland (root)

tox/o

poison (root)

ana-

again, anew (prefix)

inter-

between (prefix)

acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS)

group of clinical signs and symptoms associated with supression of the immune system and marked by opportunistic infections, secondary neoplasms, and neurologic problems

allergy

abnormal hypersensitivity acquired by exposure to an antigen

lymphoma

malignant tumor of lymph nodes and lymph tissue

multiple myeloma

malignant tumor of bone marrow cells

thymoma

malignant tumor of the thymus gland

allergen

substance capable of causing a specific hypersensitivity reaction in the body; a type of antigen

anaphylaxia

exaggerated or unusual sensitivity to foreign protein or other substance

atopy

hypersensitive or allergic state involving an inherited predisposition

CD4+ cells

helper t cells that carry the CD4 protein antigen on their surface. HIV binds to CD4 and infects and kills T cells bearing this protein, AIDS patients have an inadequate number of ________

Hodgkins disease

malignant tumor of the lymphoid tissue in the spleen and lymph nodes; red-sternberg cell often is found on microscopic analysis

human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)

virus (retrovirus) that causes AIDS

kaposi sarcoma

malignant lesion associated with AIDS; arises from the lining of capillaries and appears as red, purple, brown or black skin nodules

non-Hodgkin lymphomas

group of malignant tumors involving lymphoid tissue. examples are follicular lymphoma and large cell lymphoma

opportunistic infections

infectious diseases associated with AIDS; they occur because HIV infection lowers the body's resistance and allows infection by bacteria and parasites that normally are easily contained

protease inhibitor

drug that treats AIDS by blocking the production of protease, a proteolytic enzyme that helps create new viral pieces for HIV

reverse transcriptase inhibitor (RTI)

drug that treats AIDS by blocking reverse transcriptase, an exnzyme needed to make copies of HIV

wasting syndrome

weight loss, decrease in muscular strength, appetite, and mental activity; associated with AIDS

CD4+ cell count

measures the number of CD4+ T cells (helper T cells) in the blood stream of patients with AIDS

ELISA

screening test to detect anti-HIV antibodies in the bloodstream

immunoelectrophoresis

test that separates immunoglobulins (IgM, IgG, IgE, IgA, IgD)

viral load test

measurement of the amount of AIDS virus (HIV) in the bloodstream

computed tomography (CT) scan

X-ray imaging produces cross-sectional and other views of anatomic structures

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