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Treaty of Utrecht (1713)

established the following boundaries of empire:

1. Spain controlled all of mainland South America except Brazil and Dutch Guina
2. Britain contolled colonie on the North Atlantic Seaboard, Nova Scotia, Newfoundland, Bermuda, Jamaica, Barbados; plus trading stations in India.
3. France controlled the Saint Lawrence, Ohio, and Mississippi River Valleys In North America-- some islands in the West Indies, also trading stations in India.
4. The dutch controlled the Cape Colony (South Africa)-- trading stations in India, Sri Lanka, and West Africa-- they also controlled trade with Java (Indonesia)

merchantilism

an economic theory that supported the 18th century empires; built around the concept that the state should an active role in managing the economy; the basic idea is to gain a favorable balance of trade by acquiring more silver and gold (bullion); under merchantilism theory, the colonies provide markets and natural resources to the home country which in turn administers and protects them; associated with absolutism

sugar

staple raised in the West Indies; used in coffee, tea, and cocao, for making candy and preserving fruits, and in the brewing industry

debt peonage

a system of labor control in which the landowner kept the lower classes in perpetual bondage

asiento

the West African slave trade

flotas

Spanish commericial veessels-- controlled imports/exports

bullion

the measure of a country's wealth, and a nation was truly wealthy only if it amassed more _______ than its rivals

East India Company

the English institution in India where France and Britain traded through priviledged charted companies that enjoyed a legal monopoly

Compagnie Des Indes

the French institution in India where France and Britain traded through priviledged charted companies that enjoyed a legal monopoly

factories

trading posts that were the original European footholds in India. They existed through privileges granted by various Indian governments.

audiencias

the divisions of viceroyalties into several subordinate judicial councils

corregidores

the most important, in a variety of local officers, who presided over municipal councils. All of these officers represented a vast array of patronage, which the monarchy usually bestowed on persons born in Spain

bourbons (Spain)

this French family replaced the Spanish Habsburg on the Spanish throne

Charles III (Spain)

the most important of the imperial reformers, he attempted to reassert Spain's control of the empire, abolished the monopolies of Seville and Cadiz and permitted other Spanish cities to trade with America; also opened more South American and Caribbean ports to trade and authorized commerce between Spanish ports in America; organized a 4th viceroyalty; introduced the intendant

intendants

To increase the efficiency of tax collection, Charles III introduced the institution of the _________ into the Spanish Empire. These loyal, royal bureaucrats were patterned on the French __________.

royal officials under the French monarchy who supervised the provencial governments in the name of the King.

peninsulares

persons born in Spain. They entered the New World to fill new posts, which were often the most profitable jobs in the region

creoles

persons of European descent born in the Spanish Colonies. Came to feel they were second-class subjects

The War of Jenkin's Ear (1739-1748)

British merchants and plantation owners persuaded Parliament to go to wat against Spain because the Spanish were interfering with Brtish trade

Fredrick the Great (Prussia)

launched the war of the Austrian Succession when he successfully invaded Silesia in 1740. This would double the size of Prussia.

Maria Theresa

as a result of the War of the Austrian Succession:

1. She kept her domain largely intact
2. She preserved the Habsburg state
3. She recognized Hungary as the most important of her crowns
4. She gained loyalty from her subjects-- especially the nobility

Treaty of Aix-la-Chapelle (1748)

1. Prussia retained control of Silesia
2. Spain renewed British privileges regarding the asiento

"Diplomatic Revolution" of 1756

Austria became an ally of France
Prussia became an ally of Great Britain

The French and Indian War

was decided at the Battle of Quebec-- on the Plains of Abraham-- The British under the command of JAmes Wolfe defeated Joseph de Montcalm-- and France lost control of its North American empires

The Treaty of Paris (1763)

ended the Seven Year's War, as a result:

1. Britain recieved all of Canada, the Ohio River Valley, and the eastern half of the Mississippi River Valley
2. Britain returned some territory in India to the French
3. Britain returned the West Indies island of Guadalupe and Martinique to the French

seasoning

a process which Africans were prepared for the laborious disciplines of slavery and made to undersand that they were no longer free

William Pitt

secretary of state in charge of the Seven Year's War; he regarded the German conflict as a way to divery French resources and attention from the colonial struggle. He later boasted of having won america on the plains of Germany.

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