Prince Henry the Navigator
1394-1460, Portuguese prince. First European royal to heavily promote discovery and exploration. Motivated by mercenary as well as missionary factors. Seeking to promote Portugese economic interests (challenging Muslim monopoly of gold trade) and to further Christian influence. Hope to find the kingdom of Prince Henry promoted settlement of islands in the Atlantic and exploration of the African coast. Founded the school for navigators at Sagres at the southwestern tip of Portugal.
Vasco da Gama
e was Portuguese sea captain. Brought back ship loaded with Eastern goods. Established Portuguese interest in east - first all sea route to valuable trade sites.
- a legendary Christian king ruling a wealthy kingdom somewhere in Africa (probably a hoax/myth).
Portuguese explorer whose expedition completed first circumnavigation of world. Southwest passage around South America Died in Philippines.
Treaty of Tordesillas
1494, Spain and Portugal divided up globe into areas of interest. Drew imaginary line N to S (Line of Demarcation) down Atlantic. Pope sanctioned treaty - not wanting two important nations fighting over territory.
Spanish 'conqueror' or soldier in the New World. They were searching for the 3-G's: gold, God, and glory.
The right to demand labor or tribute from Native Americans in a particular area, a kind of feudalism granting Spanish colonists control of conquered lands and obliging the Indians to provide forced labor and a fixed portion of their harvests
a belief in the importance of the individual and the virtue of self-reliance and personal independence
a doctrine that rejects religion and religious considerations
the translation of the Spanish word conversos, referring to Spanish Jews who converted to Christianity in the fourteenth century in order to avoid persecution.
A medieval organization of crafts workers or trades people.
National governing council of England under Henry VII, demonstrated the monarchy's distrust of nobility by excluding it.
Court of the Star Chamber
Created by Henry VII who sent lords there when they refused to give up thier private armies (Livery and Maintinance). This asserted overall authority over the lords.
place where the signori and the most powerful merchant oligarchs required all political business to be conducted.
They were sworn associations of free men seeking complete political and economic independence from local nobles.
In the 14th century it was a form a government that consisted of a one-man ruler. Despots acted to protect and support the people but used illegal acts to rule.
the rule of merchant aristocracies-- possessed constitutions but only a small class controlled the functions of government.
a political system in which the supreme power lies in a body of citizens who can elect people to represent them
mercenary leaders employed by Italian city-states
Italian underclass; a new force that disenfranchised and heavily taxed the people bitterly for being excluded from holding power.
An association of individuals in a business enterprise with transferable shares of stock, much like a corporation except that stockholders are liable for the debts of the business
an economic system (Europe in 18th C) to increase a nation's wealth by government regulation of all of the nation's commercial interests
Increase in prices in 16th century-inflation-increased demand for goods-influx of gold and silver
"Golden Age of Spain"
1500 - 1600. Newfound wealth from American explorations bring in high point of Spanish military might, art and culture.
characterized by establishing posts and forts on coastal regions but not penetrating inland to conquer entire regions or subjugate their populations
Henry VII, Tudor Dynasty, War of the Roses
One of the new monarchs, this English king managed to consolidate a lot of the power in his country for the king. He first won the War of the Roses, fighting Richard III, of the York family, and thus won the crown. He married Elizabeth of York, and secured a hereditary monarchy, so that his son and two of his grand-daughters all ruled, without war to determine who would inherit the crown.
Concordant of Bologna
France accepts supremacy of Pope over Church council and king is given right to elect French bishops
Pragmatic Sanction of Bourges
Charles VII's formal declaration of the independence of the French Church from Rome
Statue of biblical figure David utilizes contrapposto and was the first nude statue.
(1485-1547) Spanish conquistador who defeated the Aztecs and conquered Mexico
An Italian navigator who was funded by the Spanish Government to find a passage to the Far East. He is given credit for discovering the "New World," even though at his death he believed he had made it to India. He made four voyages to the "New World."
The exchange of plants, animals, diseases, and technologies between the Americas and the rest of the world following Columbus's voyages.
Santa fe Capitulations
named Columbus viceroy over any territory he might discover, gave him 1/10 of material rewards of journey
A small, highly maneuverable three-masted ship used by the Portuguese and Spanish in the exploration of the Atlantic. (p. 427)
The Spanish soldiers, explorers, and fortune hunters who took part in the conquest of the Americas in the 16th century
The term applied to Louis XI of France, Henry VII of England, and Ferdinand and Isabella of Spain, who strengthened their monarchical authority often by Machiavellian means.