What is the purpose of the supraorbital foramen?
To transmit the supraorbital vessels & opthalmic branch of the trigeminal nerve.
What runs through the carotid canal, & what is its purpose?
Carotid artery; supplies blood to the brain
What is the purpose of the jugular canal?
To allow the venous sinuses to drain into the internal jugular vein
What is the purpose of the superior orbital fissure?
To transmit the oculomotor, trochlear, and abducens nerves
What is the purpose of the mental foramen?
The lateral aspect of it allows nerves to pass to the chin and lip
What is the purpose of the incisive foramen?
To transmit blood vessels (greater palatine) and nerves (nasopalatine)
What bone is located between the mandible and larynx?
the hyoid; It provides an attachment site for muscles that elevate the larynx when swallowing
What are the names of the 3 ossicles, and where are they located?
Malleus, Incus, and Stapes; located in the tympanic cavity (inner ear)
What is the anterior longitudinal ligament?
The ligament that runs down the vertebral column, & is firmly attached to both the vertebrae & discs.
What is the posterior longitudinal ligament?
Not as strong as anterior ligament, & attaches only to discs. It prevents hyperflexion
What are the interverbral discs?
Cushion-like pads that act as shock absorbers; allow the spine to flex, extend, & flex laterally. Thickest in the lumbar and cervical regions.
What are the names of 2 aspects of the intervertebral discs?
*Nucleus pulposes-inner gelatinous substance that gives the disc its compressibility & elasticity
*Annulus fibrosus- Surrounds the nucleus
What are the special features of the lumbar vertebrae?
*Sturdier structure reflects weight-bearing function
*Pedicles & lamina are shorter & thicker
*Spinous proceses project directly backward
*Orientation of superior articular facet is medially & the inferior articular facet is laterally (serves to provide stability by preventing rotation, but allowing flexion/extension)
What are known as primary curves in regard to spinal curvature?
Thoracic and sacral curvature which are convex posteriorly (bulging out)
What are considered secondary curves?
Cervical and lumbar curvatures which are concave posteriorly (cupping in)
When does the cervical curve form in the spine?
When the infant begins to hold their head erect (at 3 months)
What are the 3 abnormal curvatures of the spine?
*Scoliosis- Lateral curvature of the spine
*Lordosis- Accentuated lumbar curvature
*Kyphosis- Exaggerated thoracic curvature
What are the pedicles on the vertebrae?
They project posteriorly from the body and form the lateral walls of the vertebral arch.
What is the function of the vervical vertebrae?
To support the skull; they allow controlled head movement.
What do the superior articular facets articulate with?
The occipital condyles of the occipital bone (which supports the head)
What movement do the superior articular facets allow for?
Anterior (flexion) and posterior (extension) movement of the head (nodding yes)
What is the articular facet for the dens?
It accommodates the dens, & is located on the anterior portion of the vertebral foramen
What is the purpose of the ligamentum nuchae?
To maintain the cervical curve when the head is upright (acts like a bowstring)
What do the thoracic vertebrae help with?
They articulate with the ribs to allow volumetric changes in the thoracic cage
What is the auricular surface of the sacrum?
It articulates with the ilium to form the sacroiliac joints of the pelvis.
What are the true ribs?
Superior 7 ribs that attach directly to the sternum by separate costal cartilages
What are the false ribs?
Inferior 5 ribs that attach indirectly to the sternum or lack an attachment; ribs 8-10 attach indirectly and form the costal margin; ribs 11-12 do not attach at all (floating ribs)
What is the costal groove of the ribs?
The inferior medial border that accommodates the intercostals nerve.
What is thy xiphoid process of the sternum?
Made of hyaline cartilage; Serves as an attachment point for the rectus abdominus and diaphragm
What is the purpose of the clavicular curves?
To ensure that a fracture would happen anteriorly. A posterior fracture could tear the subclavian artery.
What are phalanges and how many do we have in five digits?
Fingers/toes; We have 14 phalanges in 5 digits. Each single bone is a phalanx
What is the fovea capitis?
Small pit for the ligamentum teres which secures the head to the acetabulum.