Why was the Caliph Uthman disliked by Arabs?
he was the first caliph to be chosen from Muhammads early enemies, the Umayyads
What was the most significant of the transformations brought about by the Abbasid's rise to power?
the admission of the mawali as full members of the Islamic community.
What does Islam mean?
submission to the will of god
The Umayyads were threatened by what developments?
the development of a new religion under muhammads direction, the growing power of medina, the new faith threatened to supplant the gods of the ka'ba
What was the date of Muhammad's flight to Medina from Mecca?
What happened to the Abbasid's control of the empire by the 9th century?
It began to lose control of its empire
Where did the Abbasid's move their political center?
What was the name of the political and theological faction within Islam only Ali and the descendants of the family of Muhammad as rightful rulers called?
What was the nature of the material culture of Bedouin society?
except in the sedentary agricultural communities of the south, there was little art or architecture; and the chief focus of cultural creativity was oral poetry
What happened after Muhammad's death in 632?
Many of the Bedouin tribes renounced Islam.
What was the nature of slavery within the Abbasid social system?
because most unskilled labor was left to the unfree, slaves could be found in both the towns and countryside of the abbasid empire
The wars to defeat the rival prophets of Islam and restore unity are called?
Who were the ayan?
a rural landholding elite
Where did the Umayyads shift the political center of Islam?
What was Muhammad's teaching with respect to the revelations of other monotheistic religions?
Muhammad accepted the validity of earlier Christian and Judaic revelations and taught that his own revelations were a final refinement and reformulation of ealier ones.