People of Dutch or German origin, who settled in South Africa from the mid 17th Century. Believed that they had a covenant with God to occupy the land. Also known as the 'Boers'
An Afrikaans word meaning 'farmer'. Often applied to the Afrikaner people of South Africa.
The year in which the British set up an administration for their 'Cape Colony' to try to curb French colonial interests.
Orange Free State
Along with the 'Transvaal', this was one of the two republics formed by the Afrikaners following the arrival of the British.
Along with the 'Orange Free State', this was one of two republics formed by the Afrikaners following the arrival of the British.
This was the first territory established by the British in South Africa in 1795, followed by Natal.
Along with the Cape Colony, this was one of the British colonies in South Africa.
A war of 1899 - 1902 between the British and the Afrikaners over control of the white territories of South Africa.
Treaty of Vereeniging
The treaty between the Boers and the English which brought war to an end in 1902. Its treaties were considered favourable to the Afrikaners.
Union of South Africa
In 1910, the British united Cape Colony, Natal, the Transvaal and the Orange Free State to form this self-governing dominion of the British Empire.
The name given to the Afrikaners who had been involved in the 'Great Trek' and who saw themselves as having a special covenant with God.
Battle of Blood River
A battle between Zulus and Afrikaners during the Great Trek, in which the Afrikaners won against great odds. Basis for their belief that they have a special covenant with God.
Strict Protestant faith of the majority of Afrikaners. Adherents believe that they are God's 'Elect' and that they are 'predestined' for salvation.
A Biblical story of the Israelites being led from captivity in Egypt to freedom in Canaan. Seen as a parallel with the experiences of Afrikaners.
A term for the grasslands of South Africa; an iconic image of the country.
Along with Louis Botha, these two Boer War generals saw enormous potential in co-operating with British South Africans in order to cement white power.
Along with Jan Smuts, these two Boer War generals saw enormous potential in co-operating with British South Africans in order to cement white power.
An Afrikaner, scarred by treatment of his family during the Boer War, who founded the National Party in 1914.
The party founded by James Hertzog in 1914, as a means of furthering Afrikaner interests. Remained the dominant party until the end of Apartheid in 1994.
An organisation formed in 1918, to work behind the scenes to further Afrikaner interests and to support the notion of 'blood, race and ancestors'. Virtually all Afrikaner leaders belonged to this group.
A former German colony, taken as a Mandate by South Africa after World War I and retained for decades, despite belief that it deserved independence.
The man who founded the ANC in 1912, following the example of the Indian National Congress.
Founded in 1912 by Pixley Seme, to further the cause of African Nationalism. Meant to represent all African groups, but most closely associated with the Xhosa tribe.
Ox Wagon Fire Guard
Along with the Greyshirts, these two groups had sympathies to the Nazi regime and worked against the British war effort.
Along with the Ox Wagon Fire Guard, these two groups had sympathies to the Nazi regime and worked against the British war effort.
Act of Union
Official granting of 'independence' for South Africa, by Britain in 1910.
The year in which the Act of Union took place for South Africa.
Native Labour Act
Legislation of 1911 which required all African working men to carry a pass document which would control the movement of labour within the country.
Legislation of 1913, which required 13% of the land to be 'reserved' for the black population.
Event of the late 1920s and 1930s in which the economy collapsed and many Afrikaners were forced to compete with blacks for jobs.
Year in which Daniel Malan led the National Party to victory, based on the platform of 'Apartheid'.
The essential belief and meaning of Apartheid. This would result in all black people being required to eventually live in homelands or 'Bantustans'.
A term meaning 'black homelands', four of which were designed under the Apartheid Regime to eventually become self-governing states for black Africans.
Year in which South Africa withdrew itself from the Commonwealth of Nations, in the face of almost certain expulsion.
A commission of inquiry set up by the the Malan Government to investigate the future of Apartheid South Africa. Would ultimately recommend full separation.
National Party member and later PM of South Africa from 1958 - 1966 , who is credited with being the 'architect of Apartheid'.
Along with the 'Prohibition of Mixed Marriages Act' of 1949, the 1950 legislation provided against sexual relations between different racial groups.
Group Areas Act
An act of 1950, which determined which areas in the country would be used by which race. It resulted in the destruction of many black neighbourhoods and the creation of 'townships' on the fringes of white cities.
Bantu Labourers Act
Legislation which made it illegal for Africans to be in an urban area for more than 72 hours, unless they met stringent conditions. Kept Africans 'bonded' to white employers.
Reservation of Separate Amenities Act
An act of 1953, which required the government to provide segregated facilities in virtually all facets of life. The basis of 'Petty Apartheid'.
Effectively created by the Reservation of Separate Amenities Act, this was the duplication and segregation of virtually all facilities in South Africa.
Bantu Education Act
This legislation of 1953, provided for state control over the African education system. Its most controversial requirement was to have Africans educated in 50% of subjects in the Afrikaans language.
Suppression of Communism Act
Legislation of 1950 which provided very loose guidelines to protect the country from radical forces. Used extensively to target African opposition groups.
The special forces of the Apartheid regime which developed a reputation for brutal treatment of all dissidents.
This party, formed by Smuts and Botha, was the official 'Opposition' but opposed extending rights to other races.
Formed in 1959, this party was in favour of a gradual transition to racial integration. It's only parliamentary representative was Helen Suzman.
A Jewish representative of the Progressive Party, who was the effective opposition to Apartheid from 1962.
Dutch Reformed Church
The particular branch of Calvinist Protestantism, to which most Afrikaners belonged. Also known as 'The National Party at Prayer'
This Protestant Church was of a more liberal tradition and eventually took a highly activist stance against Apartheid, especially following the appointment of Demond Tutu as Archbishop.
Anglican Archbishop and opponent of Apartheid. Winner of the Nobel Peace Prize.
An event of 1960, in which 69 black people were killed in the Transvaal. It was during a supposedly peaceful protest.
ANC protests of the early 1952, based on non-cooperation with discriminatory laws.
A branch of the ANC, created in 1944, as a response to perceived inaction by party elders. Its leading lights were Nelson Mandela, Walter Sisilu and Oliver Tambo
Event of 1976, in reaction to an increased enforcement of the Bantu Education Act. Spontaneous student protests were undertaken, resulting in law enforcement bodies killing 176 people, including Hector Pieterson.
13 year old boy who was a martyr in the Soweto Massacre. His image was carried in international newspapers, along with his crying sister.
Event of 1963-4, in which Mandela and others were tried for sabotage and treason. The defence team was led by Bram Fischer, the Afrikaner lawyer. Mandela would be sentenced to prison for 28 years.
F W De Klerk
The last Prime Minister of Apartheid Era South Africa from 1989 - 1994. Against expectations, he repealed Apartheid laws and would eventually be recognised by Mandela, who chose him as Second Deputy President. Considered a traitor by many Afrikaners, a hero by others.
D F Malan
Prime Minister who ushered in much of the Apartheid System, following election in 1948. He is seen as a champion of Afrikaner nationalism and left office in 1954.
P W Botha
Nationalist Prime Minister of South Africa from 1978 to 1984. He promised that he would reform Apartheid, following his speech calling for whites to 'Adapt or Die'. Inconsistent reform pleased few, white or black.
The year of multi-racial, democratic elections in South Africa.
The justification for Apartheid was often held to be this goal. It stated that each 'race' of South Africa should be allowed a chance to develop in their own way, without the interference of others.
In South Africa, this language increasingly became the language which provided a unity between black groups, as opposed to Afrikaans, which was seen as the language of oppression.
Inkatha Freedom Party
This tribally oriented party was formed in 1975. It emphasised Zulu Nationalism around their chief. It was one of the main opponents to the ANC (who were seen as dominated by the Xhosa) and was led by Chief Buthalezi.
United Democratic Front
This multi-racial group, formed in 1983, was a grand coalition of church, political, tribal and union groups, in opposition to Apartheid.
Pan African Congress
Formed in 1959, this group believed that the ANC had lost touch with its roots. It was founded by Robert Sobukwe.
Declaration of 1977 in which Commonwealth Nations agreed to discourage sporting contact with South Africa.
The year in which a 'Cape Coloured' South African was selected for the English national cricket team. When the South African Authorities complained, a boycott was organised against them.
A document of 1955 outlining the core principles of the 'South African Congress Alliance'. It included such things as racial equality, democratic elections, nationalisation of assets, land reform and labour rights.
Along with the Nigerian President, this former Australian PM was sent to investigate South African progress towards liberalisation of the Apartheid regime in 1985.
A much amended piece of South African legislation which, amongst many other things, banned sexual contact between blacks and whites. It was first introduced during British dominated government in 1927.
This acronym represents the umbrella organisation was formed in 1991 to assist in the transition of South Africa to a democratic, multi-party, multi-racial nation
Drawn from the term for 'Drawing the Wagons', this Afrikaner mindset describes their response to perceived attacks on their people by blacks, British or International bodies. It derives from the time of the Great Trek.
Umkhonto We Sizwe
Launched in 1961, this armed branch of the ANC was considered by some to be a terrorist group. It conducted guerilla warfare against the Nationalist government and the Apartheid system. It means 'Spear of the Nation'.