the cognitive processes involved in producing and understanding linguistic communication
the usage or vocabulary that is characteristic of a specific group of people
A collection of languages related to each other through a common ancestor long before recorded history
group of languages with more commonality than a language family (indicates they have branched off more recently in history)
A collection of languages within a branch that share a common origin in the relatively recent past and display relatively few differences in grammar and vocabulary
A boundary that separates regions in which different language usages predominate
Societies with out a written language
the variant of a language that a country's political and intellectual elite seek to promote as the norm for use in schools, government, the media, and other aspects of public life
a family (or phylum) of several hundred related languages and dialects, including most major languages of Europe, Iran, and northern India, and historically also predominant in Anatolia and Central Asia.
collapsing of two languages into one resulting from the consistent spatial interaction of peoples with different languages.
Languages of traditional, numerically smaller, and technoligically less advanced people have been replaced, or greatly modified, by the languages of invaders.
The diversification of languages
technique using the vocabulary of an extinct language to re-create the language that preceded it.
Proto- Indo European
Linguistic hypothesis proposing the existence of an ancestral Indo-European language that is the hearth of the ancient latin, greek, and sanskrit languages which hearth would link modern languages from scandinavia to north africa and from north america through parts of asia to australia
hypothesized ancestral language of Proto-Indo-European, as well as other ancestral language families., The language believed to be the ancestral language not only of Proto-Indo-European, but also of the Kartvelian languages of the southern Caucasus region, the Uralic-Altaic languages (including Hungarian, Finnish, Turkish, and Mongolian), the Dravadian languages of India, and the Afro-Asiatic language family
family of indigenous American languages. Second oldest & largest family. Less widely diffused.
of or pertaining to American Indians or their culture or languages
concentrated along arctic and near-Arctic shore.
the the theory which states that with increased food supply and increased population, speakers from the hearth of Indo-European languages migrated into Europe
theory of how proto-inko european spread into europe that speakers spread westward on horseback
the branch of lexicology that studies the place names of a region or a language
In multilingual countries the language selected, often by the educated and politically powerful elite, to promote internal cohesion; usually the language of the courts and government
countries in which only one language is spoken
a state that uses many languages
two different speaking language people find a common language to communicate
an artificial language used for trade between speakers of different languages
a mother tongue that originates from contact between two languages
an artificial language based as far as possible on words common to all the European languages
discriminatory or abusive behavior towards members of another race
an ethnic quality or affiliation resulting from racial or cultural ties
a society in which different cultural groupls keep their own identity, beliefs, and traditions
small, usually rural and ethnically homogeneous enclaves situated within a larger and more diverse cultural context.
a culturally shared trait that gives an ethnic or cultural group a strengthened sense of awareness and self-identity
process that works against globalization, revitalizing cultural ties and promoting distinction.