Morality Study Guide
|Morality||the goodness or sinfulness of human acts.|
|Catholic morality||the way that we live our lives as children of God in response to Jesus under the guidance of the Holy Spirit at work in the Catholic Church|
|Natural law||God's fatherly instruction that is written on the human heart and accessed by human reason. God has placed within us a way to participate in his wisdom and truth.|
|Dignity (human dignity)||the respect owed to all humans because they are made in God's image.|
|Grace||the gift of the Holy Spirit; participation in God's Trinitarian life; the help God gives us to live out our vocation|
|Sanctifying grace||a share in god's life; a gift from God that enables the soul to live with him and respond to his friendship|
|Actual grace||the help God gives us for a particular need to help us conform our lives to his will.|
|Vocation||calling to love and serve God both now and forever.|
|Dietrich Bonhoeffer||German Lutheran pastor, who who actively protested the Nazi regime policies in his country.|
|Alfred Delp||Jesuit Priest, Fought Nazism; held prison meditations when in prison-- an inspiring testament of faith.|
|Incarnation||The teaching that God became flesh through the birth of Jesus Christ, the son of God and the child of the Virgin Mary.|
|Sermon on the Mount||a part of the Gospel according to Matthew in which Jesus preaches important moral teachings, including the Beatitudes.|
|Kingdom of God||The reign of God proclaimed by Jesus and begun in his life, death, and resurrection. It refers to the process of God reconciling and renewing all things through his Son, to the fact of his will being done on earth as it is in heaven|
|Guiding principles for a Christian moral life||All love comes from God, love on our part is a response to and a participation in Gods love, love others as we love ourselves, that is, with our whole being, and love others and love of God are inseparable.|
|Matthew 25: 31-40||We discover that Jesus is calling us to seek him in the people who are apart of our lives. The story reminds us that we are to welcome strangers.|
|John 13 foot washing||Christians are commissioned by Jesus to serve one another and those who are hurting in their midst. A model of all Christian service.|
|Difference between spirit of the law and letter of the law||Following the spirit of the law means acting in response to the Holy Spirit who dwells with in us. The letter of the law means doing what the Law commands only because it says so.|
|Communion of Saints||the unity in Christ of all the redeemed, those on earth and those who have died, especially the unity of faith and charity through the Eucharist|
|Ecclesia||a Greek word for a duly summoned assembly; also means Church|
|Magisterium||The official teaching authority of the Church comprised by the Pope and bishops who are successors of Christ and his Apostles.|
|Catechism||serves as the primary focus on defining the catholic teachings. an elementary book containing a summary of the principles of the Christian religion, esp. as maintained by a particular church, in the form of questions and answers.|
|Documents of the Vatican II|| Vatican II- bishops meeting together and during the time of 1962 to 1965 numerous documents were produced. |
Encyclical- official letter from the pope.
Statements of the Vatican commision- an examination of religion and thers.
Pastorial letters- letters from the pope.
|Two main sources for Catholic teaching||Scripture and tradition, jesus and the church.|
|Three dimensions of conscience||Having the awareness of the need to make a decision, development of awareness through self-examination, and the decision making.|
|What is the root word for conscience mean?||to know. this means that conscience has to do with knowing , and conscience refers to an action rather than a thing. also thats the act of judging is based on one's knowledge of right and wrong.|
|Informed conscience, lax conscience, erroneous conscience, and sin?|| informed: a conscience that is educated and developed through constant use and examination.|
lax: when the conscience is ignored or underemployed.
erroneous: when a person follows the steps of decision making but unwittingly makes a wrong decision.
sin: is a result of not following our conscience
|What does the church say about following his conscience?||Man is obliged to follow faithfuly what he knows to be just and right.|
|What is the importance of freedom in choosing good?||God calls people to serve him and in truth. Consequently, they are bound to him in conscience, but not coerced. God has regard for the diginity of the hman person which he himself crated; human persons are to be guided by their own judgement and to enjoy freedom.|
|Vatican II documents that address conscience||Pastorial constitution on the church in the modern world, cathecism, Gaudium et spes, Declaration on religious liberty.|
|How does adam and eve influence our views on sin?||The story of adam and eve sets the stage for another story that places sin in a christian contxt- the story of christ's conquering of sin through his death on the cross. The mystery of human sinfulness is frightening; the mystery of God's love is infinitely more wonderful.|
|Missing the mark and hardness of heart||Missing the mark: The people of the bible believed that there was a mark or goal to aim for, and that sin meant missing that mark.|
Hardness of heart: The root of sin lies in th heart of man. This image of a hard heart suggest a closing in upon ourselves the way we might stiffen when we are being touched by someone whom we don't want to touch us.
|Original sin, venial and mortal sin|| original-disobedience against God by the first human beings.|
venial- weakens our relationship with god.
mortal- an action do destructive that it mortally wounds our relationship with god.
|Sinful social structures||.Organizations that promote or lead to sinful attitudes.|
|Hell||Eternal separation from God that results from a person dying after freely and deliberately choosing to act against God's will (that is, not repenting of mortal sin).|
|Difference between legal model of sin and the relational model, and what it entails?||legal-There was a time when Catholics thought that living morally was mostly a matter of obeying the law—the divine law or the commandments of God, the ecclesial (Church) laws or the natural laws expressed in the moral teaching of the Church. "It's in the Bible" or "The Church says so" were often our most important reasons for being moral. |
relational- Under this model, Jesus is a friend, and sin is an action that damages our friendship with Him. This approach tends to focus more on feelings rather than on lists of sins. Religion is understood as an active friendship with God through Jesus.
|Character, virtues (Latin root) and vices|| character- the attributes and features that make up our individuality.|
virtues-character strengths (strength or power)
vices- character weaknesses
|Three theological virtues|| Theological virtues are good habits given by God and directed only on him. |
Charity is the cornerstone of all virtues
love is to will the good of others
faith is a prayerful longing to encounter possible
hope is trusting that God will answer your prayer.
|Four cardinal virtues||the four most important virtues or good actions which are prudence (carefulness); temperance (restraint or self-control); fortitude (courage or resilience) and justice (fair treatment)|
|What did St. Thomas Aquinas say about charity?||To love is to will the good of another|
|Abortion: rationale, declaration on procured abortion||rationale: human life begins at contraception , therefore the human should be respected and have dignity. But, some circumstances like the health of the mother, finances, and living conditions sway the decisions.|
|Genetic Screening: intentions, value/risk of screening||if the mother want to screen the child to look at the health of herself and the baby for the ultimate well being of the child then it is okay. the value of this is that the mother can now prepare for a child that may have a disability or any other issue. The risk of this is that there is a higher risk that the baby will be aborted then.|
|Therapeutic vs. Enhancement Genes||Genetic enhancement refers to the use of genetic engineering to modify a person's nonpathological human traits. In contrast, gene therapy involves using genetic engineering to alter defective genes or insert corrected genes into the body in order to treat a disease.|
|Controversies on genetic engineering||Vatican says that if it is done to heal it is fine but if it is done to improve the over biological condition then it is unacceptable.|
|Views on Genetic engineering||yes: babies wont have conditions they will have to live with, it could end diseases forever, parents should be able to give their kids a good start at life, and it would lead to a more healthy and intellectual population|
no: this could be abused, the children should be wanted for who they are, and only the rich people can afford this.
|Church view on ge||Worng, because it is taking away natural contraception, it endangers the life of the child, and it messes up Gods natural plan for us and our children.|
|Difference between embryonic and adult stem cell research.||Embryonic stem cells, as their name suggests, are derived from embryos. Most embryonic stem cells are derived from embryos that develop from eggs that have been fertilized in vitro—in an in vitro fertilization clinic—and then donated for research purposes with informed consent of the donors. They are not derived from eggs fertilized in a woman's body.|
adult cells are used in adult testing
|Which does the church support?||support adult because no lives were killed.|
|Alcohol and Drugs: permissible||if prescribed by a doctor and used in moderation, not for recreational use.|
|Direct/Indirect Euthanasia||In direct euthanasia, an action is taken by which one ends the life of someone else. Indirect euthanasia consists of "discontinuing medical procedures that are burdensome, dangerous, extraordinary, or disproportionate to the expected outcome"|
|Hospice||Recognizes dying as the last and perhaps the most important journey that people will take. Hospice offers an intense, multifaceted treatment for people with a fatal illness.|
|Capital Punishment arguments||public authority was accustomed to punishing criminals and it will prevent to prisoner from hurting anyone else.|
|deterrence, rehabilitation, retribution||deterrence- punishment or fear of punishment can help prevent crime|
rehabilitation- programs aimed at training and reforming wrongdoers so that they no longer commit crime
retribution- restoring the social order by punishing wrongdoers, thus declaring that certain behaviors are not tolerated in society.
|how could cp be considered acceptable||If there is an extreme situation in which the criminal cannot be detained.|
|natural planning vs birthcontrol contraception||natural planning does not involve a pill and you just plan out your pregnancy and when you are ovulating.|