John Quincy Adams
said the national government should promote internal improvements, set up a national university, finance scientific explorations, and create a Department of the Interior.
The Tariff of 1824 favored
the Middle Atlantic and New England manufacturers.
In the face of attacks on his personal life by John Adams and others during the 1828 election, Andrew Jackson responded by
In the presidential election of 1828,
most of Andrew Jackson's support was in the states west and south of Pennsylvania.
The dispersion of plantation slavery and cotton culture into the Old Southwest—Georgia, Alabama, Mississippi, Louisiana, and Texas
disrupted family ties and changed social life.
Despite the fact that Andrew Jackson continually opposed federal aid to local projects, he
did support interstate projects such as the National Road
The spoils system was
a way of rewarding political supporters.
The Eaton Affair resulted from
gossip concerning the wife of one of Jackson's cabinet members.
As a result of the Eaton Affair
Jackson was drawn closer to Martin Van Buren.
Jackson's veto of the Maysville Road Bill demonstrated his belief
that the federal government should not fund purely local projects.
The theory of nullification (a theory that a state may nullify, or invalidate, any law that the state deems unconstitutional)
is associated with the name of John C. Calhoun.
In the Webster-Hayne debate, Robert Y. Hayne
argued that the Union was created by a compact of the states.
In the Webster-Hayne debate, Daniel Webster argued
that a state could neither nullify a federal law nor secede from the Union.
In response to the tariff controversy, a South Carolina state convention
nullified the tariffs of 1828 and 1832.
In Wisconsin and Illinois, resistance to Jackson's Indian removal policy was led by
Jackson viewed the Bank of the United States as
monopoly that served the interests of a wealthy few.
Jackson proceeded to destroy the Bank of the United States by
removing all government deposits.
John C. Calhoun
became the public leader of the nullificationists
The rift between Jackson and Calhoun
led to the removal of Calhoun's supporters from the Cabinet.
The Force Bill of 1833
was issued in response to the South Carolina Ordinance.
All of the following were prominent Whig politicians
Clay, Webster, Harrison.
The Republican candidate for president in 1832 was
In the case of Cherokee Nation v. Georgia, the Supreme Court ruled
that the Cherokees had an "unquestionable right" to their lands (but that didn't stop Andrew Jackson from pwning them and making them move).
President Jackson's attitude toward the Supreme Court's decision in Worcester v. Georgia was
defiance (the court has made their decision, now let them come ENFORCE it).
The Anti-Masonic party
was a third party
President Jackson vetoed the bill to recharter the Bank of the United States
four years before the Bank's charter expired.
"Pet Banks" were
stat e banks that received federal government deposits.
As a result of Jackson's bank policies:
- sales of public land rose tremendously
- banks printed new banknotes with abandon
- the nation entered a period of speculative mania
The Specie Circular of 1836
said that only gold and silver would be accepted as payment for public lands.
The one thing that united all members of the new Whig party was opposition to
The Panic of 1837
caused bank failures and high unemployment
All of the following factors contributed to the Panic of 1837:
- withdrawal of European investments
- drop in the price of cotton
- great increase in financial speculation during the Jackson administration
The proposal for an Independent Treasury
was designed to allow the government to stop risking its deposits in shaky banks.
The Independent Treasury Act provoked opposition from
Whigs and conservative Democrats.
In the Election of 1840
voter turnout was high.
The irony of Jackson's political philosophy is that
his laissez-faire rationale for republican simplicity became the justification for the unregulated corporate power.