SS (5) - CH. 4 - LESSON 2

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Who was the AZTEC ruler in 1521 when the AZTEC empire was conquered?

• Moctezuma (CORTES took him prisoner & he was killed during fighting.)

Hernado Cortés

SPANISH conquistador who led the EXPEDITION that caused the FALL of the AZTEC empire and brought large portions of mainland Mexico (Tenochtitlan) under the King of Spain.

What helped Cortés defeat & conquer the AZTECS in 1521?

• He had better WEAPONS (Armor, Rifles, Muskets, bullets),

...

• He had ALLIES (support of the Native Americans),

...

• He had HORSES (that the Spanish had brought with them)

...

• There were many DISEASES (like SMALLPOX) that the Spanish brought with them that also helped wipe-out the Aztecs.

conquistadores

Spanish 'conquerors' or soldiers in the New World.

ally

a friend who will help in a fight

Tenochtitlan

The ancient CAPITAL CITY of the AZTECS which is now present-day Mexico City. Founded c. 1325, it was conquered & destroyed by Cortés & his band of Spanish conquistadors in 1521.

Doña Marina

an AZTEC woman and an ALLY of Cortés. She spoke many native languages of Mexico & persuaded many native peoples of Mexico to join Cortés in his fight because they did not want to live under AZTEC rule.

conquest

to capture or take something by force

What did the Spanish rename Tenochtitlan?

New Spain

New Spain

After the defeat of the Aztecs, it became a Spanish COLONY established in 1535.

What did they name the capital city of New Spain?

The capital city of New Spain was Mexico City.

Today, Mexico City is the capital of what?

Today, Mexico City is the capital of Mexico (not New Spain).

convert

To CHANGE... or a convert is a person who has been converted to another religious or political belief.

colonist

a person who lives in a colony.

What was the name of another powerful & wealthy empire which was SOUTH of the AZTEC empire?

The empire of the INCAS was SOUTH of the AZTEC empire.

Where was the INCA Empire located?

ANDES Mountains in the country of PERU which is in the continent of SOUTH America

Who was the Spanish explorer who wanted to conquer this INCAN empire for SPAIN?

Francisco Pizarro was the Spanish conquisatador who was looking for GOLD in the wealthy INCA Empire.

Who was the ruler of the the Incas?

Atahaulpa

Atahualpa

the ruler of the the Inca.

What country was the richest in Europe? Why?

Spain, Beacuse of Cortes & Pizarro conquering the Aztec & Inca Empires

Francisco Vasquez de Coronado

a Spanish conquistador looking for the 7 cities of Gold & who also claimed the American SOUTHWEST for Spain.

Coronado was a Spanish conquistador looking for the 7 cities of Gold in what is now the?

American Southwest (US)

What are the 7 cities of Gold?

Supposed to be 7 cities built entirely of gold --- but they where just 7 small villages

Coronado was the first to see?

The Grand Cayon

Cuzco (in Peru)

the INCAN capital city.

Lima (city in Peru)

Pizzaro founded a new capital city of the Incan empire called Lima, which is now the present-day capital city of Peru. The people who now live in Lima, Peru have a new culture & they are part Indian, part Spanish.

Who built the city of Lima, Peru? What counrty is Lima, Peru in?

Pizarro, South America

What do most Spanish cities have around a centeral plaza

Cathedral & government building

Mexico City was the new capital of?

New Spain

City of Tenochtitlan was rebuild and called

Mexico city

Missionary

a person who teaches his or her religion to people of different beliefs

Describe the factors that enabled Cortés to defeat the Americas

metal armor, muskets, horses and allies

What are the changes the Spanish brought to New Spain?

built a new capital city, converted Indians to Christianity, brought diseases such as smallpox

After Cortés conquered the AZTECS, WHO conquered the INCAN empire?

Pizarro

Which happened first in Spain's search for gold?

Cabeza de Vaca traveled the American Southwest.

What COLONY was founded AFTER the defeat of the INCAN empire?

Peru

What happened AFTER Esteban's death in what is now New Mexico?

Coronado continued the search for Cibola.

Describe an Indian's life on an ecomienda

They often worked without pay and were expected to become Christians

What impact did Columbus and Vespucci have on the Americas?

Many more Europeans traveled to the Americas, following the lead and routes of Columbus and Vespucci.

How did having Indian allies help Cortes conquer the Aztecs?

Allies helped the Spanish conquistadors communicate, get directions, and obtain food, shelter, supplies and addtional forces to conquer the Aztecs.

Why do archaeologists today find evidence of the ancient Aztec capital right in the center of Mexico City?

Mexico City was built on the ruins of Tenochtitlan, the former Aztec capital.

The Spanish explorers conquered Indian empires to gain land and riches. How do you think the Aztec and Incan people may have felt about these events?

They feared an end to their ways of life and their safety. They saw opportunities to advance and become part of the new culture taking over their land.

What steps were taken to find the kingdom of Cibola?

Cibola was searched for by Esteban, who had traveled with Cabeza de Vaca. After Esteban's death, Coronado continued the unsuccessful search.

What was colonial society like in New Spain?

The society in New Spain was organized by ancestry. Those coming from Spain- peninsulares- had the greatest status and power. Those who had no Spanish blood, like the Indians and Africans, held the lowest position.

How did Spain become one of the most powerful countries in the world in the 1600s?

Spain established colonies and built profitable settlements. The profits from the plantations and mines in the colonies helped make Spain one of the richest and most powerful countries in the world.

Bahama Islands

because Columbus believed he had reached the Indies, the Bahama Islands and other islands of the regions became known as the West Indies

Why did Columbus sail west in his first expedition?

To find quicker and cheaper ways to the Indies

List reasons Columbus made more voyages to West Indies

Bring people and animals back. Spain wanted to become rich. Spain wanted to start colonies.

What was the Columbian Exchange? List some of the results.

Movement of animals, people and diseases for a new way of life between East and West. Indians died. Europeans enjoyed new food.

How did Columbus' voyages impact the Americas?

Indians became slaves and Columbus showed Europeans the way to America.

Who conquered the Incan Empire?

Francisco Pizarro

What colony was founded after the defeat of the Incan Empire?

Peru

What happened first in Spain's search for gold?

They traveled for 8 years to discover what is now SOUTHWEST United States.

What happened after Esteban's death in what is now New Mexico?

Coranado continued to search for Cibola.

What is the correct sequence of groups in New Spain's colonial society from most to least powerful?

1. Pensusulares- born in Spain 2. Creole- Spanish born in America 3. Mestizo- Indians and Spanish 4. Indians & Africans

Native Americans who lived in New Spain had to work for?

Encomiendas

Describe the Indian's life on an encomienda.

They were SLAVES and had to work.

Why did the Spanish landowners want to keep slaves?

So that they would not have to work and make crops.

What was Bartolome de Las Casa's point of view on Indians in the encomienda system?

He wanted slavery to end.

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