Chapter 8 - Synovial Joints

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Articular Cartilage

Smooth hyaline cartilage. Absorbs compression placed on the joint and keeps the bone ends from being crushed.

Articular capsule

A two layered capsule that encloses a joint. made of a fibrous capsule and a synovial membrane.

Fibrous capsule, synovial membrane

What are the two layers of an articular capsule?

Fibrous capsule

Part of the articular capsule, it is composed of dense irregular connective tissue. Strengthens the joints so that the bones are not pulled apart.

Synovial Membrane

Part of the articular capsule, it is composed of loose connective tissue. It covers all internal joint surfaces that are not hyaline cartilage

Synovial Fluid

Fluid that occupies all free spaces within the joint capsule.

Intracapsular Ligaments

Reinforcing ligaments found deep to the capsule of a synovial joint.

Extracapsular ligaments

Reinforcing ligaments found outside the capsule of a synovial joint

Articular Discs

Found in some synovial joints, it is discs or wedges of fibrocartilage separating the articular surfaces. Improve the fit betwen articulating bone ends, making the joint more stable and minimizing wear and tear

Bursae

It is a flattened fibrous sac lined with synovial membrane and containing a thin film of synovial fluid. Occur where ligaments, muscles, skin, tendons, or bones rub together.

Tendon Sheath

An elongated bursa that wraps completely around a tendon subjected to friction

articular surfaces, ligaments, muscle tone

What are the stabilizing factors of synovial joints?

Origin

Where a muscle is attached to the immovable bone

Insertion

Where the muscle is attached to the movable bone. Moves towards the origin.

Nonaxial movement

Slipping movement only, no axis.

Uniaxial movement

Movement in one plane

Biaxial Movement

Movement in two planes

Multiaxial movement

Movement in three or more planes

Cartilage Tear

A joint injury that typically occurs when a meniscus is subjected to compression and shear stress at the same time. Can be helped by arthroscopic surgery

Sprain

A joint injury where the ligaments reinforcing a joint are stretched or torn.

Dislocation

A joint injury where the bones are forced out of alignment

Bursitis

A joint injury where there is inflammation of the bursa and is usually caused bya blow or friction

Tendonitis

A joint injury where inflammation of tendon sheaths, typically caused by overuse.

Arthritis

Over 100 different types of inflammatory or degenerative diseases that damage the joints.

Osteoarthritis

Most common chronic arthritis. May reflect the cumulative effects of years of compression and abrasion acting at joint surfaces, causing excessive amounts of the cartilage destroying enzymes to be released.

Rheumatoid Arthritis

Chronic inflammatory disorder of the joints. An autoimmune disease. Inflammation of the synovial membrane of the affected joints. Inflamed synovial membrane thickens into a panus

Gouty Arthritis

WHen uric acid rise excessively, it may be deposited as needle shaped urate crystals in the soft tissues of the joints, causing inflammation of the joints.

Lyme Disease

A joint disease caused by spirochete bacteria transmitted by the bites of ticks tat live on mice and deer. Often results in joint pain and arthritis

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