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define tissue

groups of cells with similar functions

define cytology

the study of cells

define histology

the study of tissue

4 types of tissue

connective, epithelial, muscular, nervous.

epithelial tissue

covers,lines, is glandular. anchored by connective tissue.

3 types of epithelial tissue

squamous, cuboidal, columnar

shape: squamos epithelial

thin and flat

shape: cuboidal epithelial

cube shaped

shape: columnar epithelial

column/rectangle shaped

simple epithelial

one layer

stratified epithelial

two or more layers

pseudostratified epithelial

falsely layered "one layer"

Stratified cuboidal

many layers of cube shaped cells, found in glands

Stratified cuboidal found in

glands

pseudostratified columnar found in

upper respiratory tract

Stratified squamous

many layers of thin flat cells

Dry (keratinized) stratified squamous found in

epidermis of skin

Wet (non-keratinized) stratified squamous found in

mouth, vagina, rectum

Stratified columnar

many layers of column shaped cells

stratified columnar found in

male urethra

transitional epithelium

the only epithelium that can stretch

transitional epithelium found in

urinary bladder

3 junctions between epithelial cells

tight, gap, demosome

tight junction

impermeable connection between adjacent cells

gap junction

tubular protein that connects adjacent cells

demosome

stitch between adjacent cell membranes, helps cells resist mechanical stress

hemi-demosome

half-stitch that connects the basil surface of the epithelium to the basement membrane

Connective tissue function

connects or binds things

connective tissue components

cells, matrix, ground substance, fibers

connective tissue: cells

secrete matrix

connective tissue: matrix

consists of ground susbstance

connective tissue: ground substance

solid, liquid or semi-solid

connective tissue: fibers

suspended in the ground substance (collagen)

Types of connective tissue

fibrous, supportive, fluid

types of fibrous connective tissue

dense and loose

Dense fibrous CT

fibers densely packed in the tissue

Dense fibrous CT found in

tendons, ligaments, dermis of the skin

Loose fibrous CT

fibers loosely packed

loose fibrous CT found in

adipose (fat), areolar tissue

types of supportive CT

cartilage, bone, cells

Types of cartilage supportive ct

Hyaline, fibrocartilage, elastic

Hyaline cartilage

most common, strong and flexible

hyaline cartilage found in

embryonic skeleton, joins

fibrocartilage

strong, not flexible

fibrocartilage found in

intervertebral disks, pubic symphysis, menisci

elastic cartilage

flexible but not strong

elastic cartilage found in

pinna of the ear

Cartilage cells

chondrocytes

Types of bone

spongy, compact

spongy bone

filled with large open spaces

compact bone

appears solid, but has tiny holes

3 types of bone cells

osteocyte, osteoblast, osteoclast

osteocyte

mature bone cell

osteoblast

bone building cell

osteoclast

bone destroying cell

2 types Fluid connective tissue

blood, lymph

2 things in blood

matrix, cells

blood matrix

plasma (mostly water)

types of cells in blood

red, white, platelets

red blood cells

carry oxygen

white blood cells

fight infection

platelets

clotting cells

Lymph fluid

blood derivative

Muscle Tissue function

contraction

types of muscle

skeletal, cardiac, smooth

skeletal muscle location

attaches to bone

skeletal muscle cell shape and appearance

long & cylindrical, striated or striped

Skeletal muscle control

what muscle control is voluntary?

skeletal muscle nuclei and reproduction

multi and amitotic (cannot divide)

cardiac muscle location

heart

cardiac muscle cell shape and appearance

branched, striated/striped

cardiac muscle control

involuntary

cardiac muscle nuclei and reproduction

usually uni-nucleate, amitotic (cannot divide)

Smooth muscle location

walls of hollow organs and blood vessels

smooth muscle cell shape and appearance

spindle shaped, non-striated

smooth muscle control

involuntary

smooth muscle nuclei and reproduction

ini-nucleate, can reproduce

Nervous tissue function

control body functions

nervous tissue cell types

neuron, neuroglia

neuron

main cell type of NT

neuroglia

support neurons, AKA glial cells

types of neuroglia

microglial, ependymal, oligodendrocytes, astrocytes, schwann cells

Body membranes are

found lining body surfaces

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