Chapter 14: The Human Genome

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16 terms

karyotype

photograph of chromosomes grouped in order in pairs

sex chromosomes

One of the pair of chromosomes that determine the sex of an individual

autosome

chromosome that is not a sex chromosome

pedigree

chart that shows the relationships within a family

sex-linked gene

gene located on the X or Y chromosome

diseases caused by recessive alleles

albinism, cystic fibrosis, galactosemia, phenylketonuria (PKU), Tay-Sachs disease

cystic fibrosis

an inherited disease of the respiratory system in which excessive mucus clots in the lungs usually results in premature death

sickle cell disease

Misshapen, or sickled, red blood cells; damage to many tissues; Codominant

achondroplasia, huntington disease, hypercholoesterolemia

disorder caused by dominant alleles

sickle cell disease

disorder caused by codominant alleles

PKU

accumulation of phenylalanine in tissuesl lack of normal skin pigment; mental retardation

tay-sachs disease

lipid accumulation in brain cells; mental deficiencyl blindness; death in early childhood

huntington disease

mental deterioration and uncontrollable movements; symptioms usually appear in middle age

hemophilia

sex linked disorder. no blood clotting

duchenne muscular dystrophy

sex linked disorder that results in the progressive weakening and loss of skeletal muscle

down syndrome

trisomy, increased susceptibility to many disease

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