A large landmass that juts out from a continent
Three regions of the Indian subcontinent
1. The well watered northern plain
2. The dry, triangular Deccan plateau
3. The cosatal plains
Three major rivers
The Ganges, Indus, and Brahmaputra. They supply water to the northern plain making it the major agricultural center of India.
"seasonal wind" ...winter brings a hot,dry wind, summer brings large, daily downpours. If the rains are late, famine and starvation result.
Indus Valley Civilization
Emerged in present day Pakistan about 2500 B.C. Flourished for 1000 years then vanished without a trace. Archeological digs show that it was an advanced civilization.
Harappa and Mohenjo-daro
Two main cities of the early Indus Valley civilization. Very carefully planned, laid out in a grid like fashion. Had basic plumbing. Grain was stored in huge warehouses.
Invaders from the north who completed the destruction started by nature.
Collections of prayers and other teachings that were memorized and recited. In the Vedas, the Aryans appear as warriors fighting in chariots with bows ands arrows. The Aryans valued cattle.
Three basic groups: Brahmins(priests), warriors, and another groupd consisting of herders, farmers, artisans, and merchants.
People who the Aryans conquered.
Class divisions begun by the Aryans.
Aryan religious beliefs
Polytheistic, brahman-single power that resides in all things. Growth of mystics-people who seek spiritual truth.
leaders of Aryan tribes.