104 CHR Diseases

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Coronary Artery Disease (CAD)

Condition in which plaque builds up inside the Coronary Arteries. Also known as Ischemic Heart Disease (IHD) or Coronary Heart Disease (CHD).

Coronary Artery Disease (CAD)

Often asymptomatic, if symptoms occur, may include Chest Pain, And shortness of breath.

Arteriosclerosis/Atherosclerosis

Hardening of the arteries that can result in decreased blood flow.

Arteriosclerosis/Atherosclerosis

Often Asymptomatic but may cause heart attacks, strokes, peripheral vascular disease, or other serious disease states over time.

Angina Pectoris

Is the blockage of coronary arteries. Is caused by arteriosclerosis or coronary artery spasms. Can be brought by physical stress, cold temps.

Angina Pectoris

Symptoms may include crushing chest pain, tingling or burning sensation in the left shoulder, pain in the left side of the jaw, shortness of breath, anxiety

Acute Coronary Syndrome (ACS)

Can be diagnosed by having, Unstable Angina (UA), Myocardial Infarction (MI)

Acute Coronary Syndrome (ACS)

Most common cause is the rupture of an atherosclerotic plaque that causes a clot in the artery.

Acute Coronary Syndrome (ACS)

Symptoms may include Chest discomfort, SOB, nausea and vomiting, discomfort in the upper body, sweating, and dizziness/light-headedness

Cardiomyopathy

Structural or functional abnormality of the heart muscle which results in a loss of muscle efficiency and decrease in heart function.

Cardiomyopathy

Caused by congenital defects, acute or chronic infections, coronary artery disease, drugs and toxins, or genetics.

Cardiomyopathy

Symptoms are SOB, Fatigue, Edema, Chest Pain, Heart Arrhythmia

Congestive Heart Failure (CHF)

Heart failure in which the body can't pump enough blood to the rest of the body.

Congestive heart failure (CHF)

coronary artery disease, hypertension, diabetes

Congestive heart failure (CHF)

Symptoms are SOB during daily activities, Trouble breathing while lying down, weight gain, tiredness, weakness

Heart Murmur

Any abnormal Heart Sound

Heart Murmur

Causes are weak valves, heart attack, HBP, rheumatic fever, pregnancy, overactive thyroid, anemia

Heart Murmur

symptoms are usually asymptomatic but can be detected during physical exams.

Rheumatic Fever

Is a streptococcal infection that can cause valvular disorders when left untreated.

Rheumatic Fever

The exact cause is unknown

Rheumatic Fever

Symptoms are fever, pain in the joints, nausea, stomach cramps, vomiting

Endocarditis

Is the inflammation of the heart lining and valves.

Endocarditis

Caused by valve malformation and repeated exposure to bacteria or dental procedures in patients with a weak immune system

Endocarditis

Is usually asymptomatic except for heart murmurs or low grade fevers

Cardiac Arrest

The cessation of heart beat and respiration.

Cardiac Arrest

Causes include, heart attack, trauma, and heart arrhythmias

Cardiac Arrest

Symptoms include sudden loss of responsiveness and absence of normal breathing

Arrhythmias

Any abnormal heartbeat

Arrhythmias

Caused when hearts natural pace maker develops an abnormal pattern.

arrhythmias

Symptoms include mild palpitations or cardiac arrest

Stroke

Loss or alteration of bodily function that results from lack of blood supply to the brain.

Stroke

Cause by obstruction of blood flow to the brain.

Stroke

Partial or full paralysis, slurred or loss of speech, visual disturbances, loss of consciousness, death

Peripheral vascular disease (PVD)

Disease of blood vessels outside the heart that affects peripheral circulation.

Peripheral vascular disease (PVD)

Can be caused by Atherosclerosis or Vasculitis, or injuries to blood vessels.

Peripheral vascular disease (PVD)

Symptoms include cramping and swelling especially to the legs

Hypertension

BP that is consistantly greater than or equal to 140 over 90

Hypertension

Most cases have no identifiable causes (AKA, primary hypertension) some cases are caused by underlying medical condition (AKA secondary hypertension)

Hypertension

Is often asymptomatic, if they do occur may include headache dizziness and nosebleeds

hypotension

occurs when BP is much lower then usual.

Hypotension

can be caused by medications, heart problems, dehydration, nutritional deficiencies, blood loss, postural changes, and thyroid abnormalities

Hypotension

Symptoms include fatigue, weakness, dizziness, syncope, and decreased kidney function

Hyperlipidemia

group of metabolic abnormalities resulting in combinations of elevated cholesterol.

Hyperlipidemia

Caused by either an increased synthesis or decreased breakdown of cholesterol.

Hyperlipidemia

Symptoms is often asymptomatic

Hypovolemic Shock

Serious condition when not enough blood flows throughout the body.

Hypovolemic shock

Caused by uncontrolled internal or external bleeding, severe burns, or during serious bouts of vomiting and diarrhea.

Hypovolemic shock

symptoms include very low BP, weak heart rate, and loss of consciousness.

Thromboembolic Disease/ Deep vein thrombosis/ pulmonary embolism

conditions that result when blood clots occlude the vein causing a back up of fluid and leading to swelling or inflammation in the extremity.

Thromboembolic Disease/ Deep vein thrombosis/ pulmonary embolism

Causes are certain surgeries, prolonged bed rest, immobility, cancer. smoking, obesity, varicose veins, inherited thrombophilias, medications,

Thromboembolic Disease/ Deep vein thrombosis/ pulmonary embolism

Symptoms include warmth and tenderness over the vein, pain and swelling, skin redness, SOB, fever, coughing up blood

Iron deficiency Anemia

Greater demand in the body for stored iron then supplied.

Iron deficiency anemia

Caused by inadequate intake of iron

Iron deficiency anemia

may be asymptomatic or may show symptoms such as palpitations and tachypnea on exertion.

Folate Deficiency Anemia

Ineffective hematopoiesis, causing cells to die within bone marrow.

Folate Deficiency Anemia

causes are improper diet, impaired absorption, increased need, excessive loss

Folate Deficiency Anemia

symptoms may include pallor, jaundice, fatigue, smooth beefy red tongue, and or weight loss

Vitamin B12 deficiency anemia

Also known as pernicious anemia, is characterized by an interruption in the formation of RBC precursor cells.

Vitamin B12 deficiency anemia

Causes, lack of liver other meats, milk and eggs in the diet, increased need, competition with tapeworms for adequate supplies.

Vitamin B12 deficiency anemia

Symptoms, Pallor, jaundice, smooth beefy red tongue, fatigue, weight loss and or Neurologic symptoms such as difficulty with gait, paresthesia, and ataxia

Sickle cell Anemia

turns your red blood cells to sickles and causes clots

Sickle cell Anemia

Causes, it is inherited

Sickle cell Anemia

Symptoms are chronic pain or fatigue, chronic anemia, fever, pallor. scleral icterus, enlargment of the liver and heart, and hematuria.

Polycythemia

Increased number of RBC, WBS, Platelets

Polycythemia

Causes are not well defined.

Polycythemia

Symptoms include headaches, vertigo, and abnormally enlarged spleen and or liver.

Hemophilia

Genetic deficiency in specific clotting factors

Hemophilia

caused by deficiency in blood clotting factors

Hemophilia

symptoms are slow or no clotting of the blood

Leukemias

Group of disorders affecting the hematopoietic system or the lymphoid system. characterized by the increase in number and size of WBC which causes the destruction of RBC.

Leukemias

Causes may include radiation, chemicals and drugs, heredity, and or congenital factors

Leukemias

Symptoms include fatigue, easy bruising

Kidney Stones

Made from urinary salts and cholesterol

Kidney Stones

The exact cause is unknown, certain people are more susceptible. May be inherited form of hypercalciuria or excessive urinary calcium excretion.

Kidney Stones

Symptoms include urinary retention and severe retroperitoneal pain due to a stone blocking the ureter.

Toxemia

Accumulation of toxic substances especially nitrogenous waste products, due to kidney failure.

Toxemia

Caused by kidney failure

Toxemia

Symptoms include elevated blood pressure, protein in the urine, and hyper reflexia.

Glomerulonephritis

The inflammation of the glomerulus portion of the nephron.

Glomerulonephritis

Acute cases caused often by bacterial infection, chronic cases may be caused by inherited disorder, and some cases unknown.

Glomerulonephritis

Symptoms include tissue edema, low urine volume and dark urine.

Pylonephritis

Infection of the kidney.

pylonephritis

Caused by bladder infections, catheter use, urinary tract surgery, prostate enlargement, kidney stones, and obstruction in the urinary tract.

pylonephritis

Symptoms include pain in the back, side, and or groin, urgent frequent urination, fever, nausea, vomiting, and pus or blood in the urine.

Diabetes insipidus

Increase of urine output due to lack of anti diuretic hormone,

Diabetes insipidus

Central Diabetes insipidus is caused by pituitary failure, and nephrogenic diabetes insipidus can be caused by a failure of the kidney to respond to ADH.

Diabetes insipidus

Symptoms include excessive thirst and increased urine output

Cystitis

Inflammation of the urinary bladder.

Cystitis

Most commonly caused by an infection of the bladder but may also be caused by certain medications chemicals or radiation.

Cystitis

Symptoms include painful frequent urination, blood in the urine or cloudy urine, and fever.

Urinary tract infection

Either an infection of a part of the urinary system or the presence of microorganisms in the urine.

(UTI)

Caused by bacteria that attach to the opening of the urethra and then spread up into the urinary tract.

(UTI)

Symptoms include burning or pain during urination and frequent urination.

Acute renal failure

Is the abrupt stoppage of filtration due to trauma or hemorrhage that causes low blood volume and acute kidney damage.

Acute Renal Failure

Symptoms include swelling of the legs and feet, little or no urine output, thirst, rapid heart rate, dizziness, nausea and vomiting, confusion, and pain on one side of the back.

Acute Renal Failure

Caused by any type of trauma or condition that impairs blood flow to the kidneys, certain toxic substances, bacterial toxins, glomerulonephritis, and acute obstruction of the urinary tract.

Chronic Renal Failure

Refers to the progressive irreversible decline in filtration.

Chronic Renal Failure

Two most common causes are diabetes and high blood pressure

Chronic Renal Failure

Symptoms include fatigue, nausea and vomiting, weight loss, blood in vomit or stools, confusion, changes in urine output, and uremic frost.

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