Nutrition- ch. 6

37 terms by Alasse3

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amino acids

the building blocks of proteins. each contains a central carbon atom bound to a hydrogen atom, an amino group, an acid group, and a side chain

essential/ indispensable amino acids

amino acids that cannot be synthesized by the human body in sufficient amounts to meet needs and therefor must be included in the diet

nonessential/dispensable amino acids

amino acids that can be synthesized by the human body in sufficient amounts to meet needs

transamination

the process by which an amino group from one amino acid is transferred to a carbon compound to form a new amino acid

conditionally essential amino acids

amino acids that are essential int he diet only under certain conditions or at certain times of life

dipeptide

two amino acids linked by a peptide bond

tripeptide

three amino acids linked by peptide bonds

polypeptide

a chain of three or more amino acids linked by peptide bonds.

denaturation

the alteration of a protein's three-dimensional structure

anaphalaxis

an immediate and severe allergic reaction to a substance. symptoms include breathing difficulty, loss of consciousness, and a drop in blood pressure and can be fatal

amino acid pool

all of the amino acids in body tissues and fluids that are available for use by the body

protein turnover

the continuous synthesis and breakdown of body proteins

gene

a length of DNA containing the information needed to synthesize RNA or a polypeptide chain

transcription

the process of copying the information in DNA to a molecule of mRNA

translation

the process of translating the mRNA code into the amino acid sequence of a polypeptide chain

gene expression

the events of protein synthesis in which the information coded in a gene is used to synthesize a product; either a protein or a molecule of RNA

limiting amino acid

the essential amino acid that is available in the lowest concentration in relation to the body's needs

deamination

the removal of the amino group of an amino acid

urea

a nitrogen-containing waste product formed from the breakdown of amino acids that is excreted in the urine

antibodies

proteins produced by the body's immune system that recognize foreign substances in the body and help destroy them

pH

a measure of acidity

protein-energy malnutrition (PEM)

a condition characterized by wasting and an increased susceptibility to infection that results from the long-term consumption of insufficient amounts of energy and protein to meet needs

kwashiorkor

a form of protein-energy malnutrition in which only protein is deficient

marasmus

a form of protein-energy malnutrition in which a deficiency of energy in the diet causes severe body wasting

phenylkentonuria (PKU)

an inherited disease in which the body cannot metabolize the amino acid phenylalanine. if the disease is untreated, toxic by-products called phenylkentones accumulate in the blood and interfere with brain development

celiac disease

a disorder that causes damage to the intestines when the protein gluten is eaten

nitrogen balance

the amount of nitrogen consumed in the diet compared with the amount excreted by the body over a given period

protein quality

a measure of how efficiently a protein in the diet can be used to make body proteins

complete dietary protein

protein that provides essential amino acids in the proportions needed to support protein synthesis

incomplete dietary protein

protein that is deficient in on or more essential amino acids relative to body needs

chemical/ amino acid score

a measure of protein quality determined by comparing the essential amino acid content of the protein in a food with that in a reference protein.

protein digestibility- corrected amino acid score (PDCAAS)

a measure of protein quality that reflects a protein's digestibility as well as the proportions of amino acids it provides

protein efficiency ratio

a measure of protein quality determined by comparing the weight gain of a laboratory animal fed a test protein with the weight gain of an animal fed a reference protein

net protein utilization

a measure of protein quality determined by comparing the amount of nitrogen retained in the body with the amount eaten in the diet

biological value

a measure of protein quality determined by comparing the amount of nitrogen retained in the body with the amount absorbed from the diet

vegan

a pattern of food intake that eliminates all animal products

vegetarianism

a pattern of food intake that eliminates some or all of animal products

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