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Articles of Confederation

-Written by the Continental Congress
-Ratified in 1777-right after Declaration
-Governed the US after the Revolution
-Created weak central gov.
-single legislative body
-1 state = 1 vote; required all decisions unanimous
-states can't collect taxes
-printed own $ = need for exchange rate

Northwest Ordinance

-Organized land claims into territories (Ohio, Indiana, Illinois, Michigan, Wisconsin, Minnesota)
-Set up regulations for becoming states
-banned slavery in new territories
-opened settlement into the west

Shays Rebellion

-W. Massachusetts - 1786-1787
-led by daniel shay - veteran of the continental army
-revolutionary war vets concerned over the collection of taxes to pay off debts
-surrounded the state courthouse
-demonstrated weakness of the national government
-used to justify calling of constitutional convention

Constitutional Convention

-Philadelphia - summer of 1787
-better turnout than the Annapolis convention
-"can the Articles be saved?"
-Rhode Island refuses to send people
-Adams, Jefferson and Henry do not attend
-Washington and Franklin attend

James Madison

-"Father of the Constitution"
-Kept the only record of the constitutional convention
-drafted the Virginia plan

The Connecticut Compromise

-Robert Sherman
-Bicameral Legislature (2 houses)
-Upper house = senate (equal representation)
-Lower house = house of representatives (representation based on population, representatives elected directly, voice of the people in the government)
-solves the biggest issue of the constitutional convention

3/5ths compromise

3/5ths of all slaves would count towards representation


-supported the new constitution and advocated its ratification
-Madison and Hamilton

Federalist Papers

-Series of 85 essays pushing for ratification of the Constitution
-"Publius" was the author (Madison, Hamilton and Jay)
-Published in NY
-Federalist 10 - written by Madison, deals with factions (groups who get together and dominate, they are the biggest threat to the government), it says that you have to cut out options and make everyone agree with each other or have a lot of factions so that only one doesn't get too powerful
-Federalist 51 - Hamilton - Ambition counteracts Ambition


-opposed the constitution
-worried about strong central government
-Henry, Adams, Jefferson
-Jefferson proposes the need for the Bill of Rights
-had trouble offering alternatives to the Constitution

Bill of RIghts

-First 10 amendments to the Constitution
-Adopted in 1791
-Preserves rights and liberties of individuals

Whiskey Rebellion

-protests in 1794 by Western Pennsylvania farmers who resisted payment of the federal tax on whiskey
-uprising is suppressed when Washington called an army of 15,000 troops to the area, where they encountered almost no resistance

Jays Treaty

-extremely controversial
-Attempt by the US to promote better relations with Britain
-Increased trade ties with Britain
-british left NW forts
-one of the 1st times that you see a lot of people turn against washington because he agreed with it

Federalist Party

-lead by Hamilton
-favored strong central government
-issues a report a credit
-supported manufacturing and industry
-built a band of the US, made protective tariffs and loaned money to businesses

Alexander Hamilton

-secretary of the treasury
-lead by the Federalist party
-from NY
-close aid to washington during the revolution
-sees a need to grow economically
loves the gov. of great britain

Democratic-Republican Party

-lead by thomas jefferson
-strong state government (10th amendment)
-supports agriculture and yeoman farmers
-more organized than the federalists

XYZ affair

-french counterparts gave bribe demands to american peace commissioners sent over by adams
-heightened war fever against france
-"millions for defense, not a cent for tribute"

Quasi War

-Undeclared naval war in the Caribbean
-not really a war b/c there was no territory to be gained and no fight over policy
-adams increased the size of the navy

Alien and Sedition Acts

-made immigration more difficult
1. alien enemies law
2. the alien law
3. naturalization law
4. the sedition law

Virginia and Kentucky Resolutions

-Jefferson (kentucky) - states should have the right to declare null and void congressional acts that they deem unconstitutional
-Madison (virginia)
-made in response to the Alien and Sedition acts

Revolution of 1800

-John Adams (F) vs. Thomas Jefferson (DR)
-Jefferson beats Adams but ties his VP (Burr)
-Election thrown to the HOR jefferson vs. burr
-Alexander hamilton is the key
-jefferson is "by far not so dangerous a man"
-12th amendment - vote for president and VP separate
-peaceful transfer of power - adams loses when he was president
-"we are all republicans, we are all federalists"
-we are all americans and we accept the idea of the transfer of power

Marbury v. Madison

-supreme court first asserted the power of judicial review by delaying the judiciary act of 1789 unconstitutional
-established by the chief justice john marshall, one of Adam's midnight appointments

Louisiana Purchase

-US acquisition of the Louisiana territory from France for $15 million
-control of the Mississippi given to the US and it doubles the size of the nation
-jefferson wanted new orleans but napoleon offered up all of louisiana

Lewis and Clark

-Jefferson sent them to explore the land gained during the Louisiana purchase
-aided by sacajawea
-brought back a wealth of scientific date about the country and the resources found there

Aaron Burr

-vain and ambitious
-bitter rival of Hamilton
-left to go to NY to run for gov. after losing president
-killed hamilton in a famous duel on july 11, 1804
-fled to the west
-conspired to capture New Orleans
-wilkinson revealed the plot to jefferson; burr arrested and tried for treason by marshall; found innocent
-case becomes a political fight between jefferson and marshall


-forcibly inducting men into military serves
-the british are doing it because they need people for their navy (taking british off of american ships)
-british start pulling american citizens into british navy
-leads to war of 1812

embargo act

-in response to the british attack on an American warship off the coast of virginia
-cuts off all american trade with Britain and France
-disproportionately hurt new england and the british

War Hawks

-supported the war with Great Britain to defend national honor and force Britain to respect America's maritime rights
-clay and calhoun
-desire for expansionism
-problems with the British (impressments, indian raids, orders in council)

Hartford Convention

-December 1814
-Proposed amending the Constitution to prevent future presidents from declaring war w/o 2/3 majority in congress
-increased new england voice in government
-accused by democratic republicans of being secessionist
-say that if they don't get their way they will hold a new convention and do something drastic
-conventions request arrives after the treaty of ghent
-discredited and destroyed the federalist party

Oliver Hazard Perry

-American naval commander (1812)
-wins at put-in bay
-"we've met the enemy and he is ours"

Fort McHenry

-September 1814
-British attack the fort
-Francis scott key writes the star-spangled banner (after he woke up the next day and saw that the american was still flying over the fort)
-protects baltimore
-americans maintain fort
-british lose


-Shawnee Indian chief who hoped to unite the indian drives against the Americans
-killed in battle of the thames


-November 1811
-William Henry Harrison vs. the prophet
-biggest american win over the indians

creek war

-starts as civil war between the creeks and the red sticks
-the red sticks massacre americans at fort mims
-horseshoe bend win for americans in the end of the war

Horseshoe Bend

-March 1, 1814
-Jackson wins
-destroys red sticks
-wins the creek war
-revenge for fort mims

New Orleans

-January 8, 1815
-Fall 1814 the British threaten New Orleans
-British attack (11,000 B vs 4,000 A)
-American victory
-2,000 B casualties and 71 A casualties
-took place after peace negotiations were put in place

Treaty of Ghent

-December 1814
-Status quo ante bellum (go back to the way things were before the war)
-agreed upon in 1814
-ratified december 1814 (before new orleans)
-New Orleans receives news in february

Era of Good Feelings

-presidency of james monroe
-named for the perceived lack of partisan strife
-no more federalists
-Monroe's tour of New England (1817)
-he goes to new england to stress that they are part of the country and the he is going to be president of all of the US and will look out for them
-transition from democratic republicans to national republicans
-Monroe won unopposed in 1820 because there was no opposition candidate; he did not win unanimously because washington was the only to ever do that

Henry Clay

-drove the idea of internal improvements
-from kentucky
-interested in national expansion/compromise and balance between the north and south
-admired hamilton's economic philosophies
-came up with the missouri compromise - and became known as the great compromiser
-created the american system

American System

-created by clay
-in favor of tariffs - high tariffs
-in favor of national bank
-in favor of infrastructure, including the cumberland road that ran from Maryland to W. Virginia and became the basis of the national road

John Quincy Adams

-former federalist
-new englander
-secretary of state
-1st crisis = the seminole war (1818) - jackson raises small force and invades floridly
-Adams-Onis treaty (1819) - give the US florida and established a border between spanish mexico and the US claims of the louisiana purchase

Monroe Doctrine

-sparked by the latin american revolution- the US and British worried about the increase of spanish presence in the new world
-Adams and Monroe wanted to avoid allying with the british because they wanted to do it on their own
-states that European nations cannot interfere in the western hemisphere
-unofficially enforced by the British navy

Missouri Compromise

-Driven by henry clay - the great compromiser
-missouri enters as slave state
-in order to balance the power they need a free state
-maine enters as a free state
-line of future slave expansion 36° 30' (N & S)
-extends to the pacific
-missouri is the exception to this line

Andrew Jackson

-Jacksonian Democracy....
-Marked by universal white male suffrage
-Hero of the Common Man
-Veteran of the Revolution of the War of 1812
-"old hickory"

Corrupt Bargain

-Clay is the key of the election of 1824
-suggests deals to jackson and adams
-says he will get them to votes to win if they make him the secretary of state
-jackson refuses the deal
-Adams wins and names clay secretary of state
-jackson becomes furious and calls what adams and clay did the "corrupt bargain" jackson blames clay

Market Revolution

-rapid change in American economic system
-had different effects nationwide
-enabled by changes in technology
-transportation: rivers (hudson, st. lawrence, ohio, mississippi), steamboats (developed by robert fulton), canals (erie canal), railroads (by 1860 almost 30,000 miles) roads (the national road)

Erie Canal

-done through a series of locks
-problems with changes in the elevation
-completely state run project
-creates the short lived age of canals

National Road.

Represented improvement in overland transportation, efforts of internal improvement driven by Henry Clay, another way to help connect the material resources and settlers of the Old Northwest (Ohio, Indiana, Illinois) with factories and finished products from the east coast

Samuel FB Morse

-invented the telegraph in 1840 - electrical impulses transported over wires
-"what hath god wrought"


-American version of the romantic and idealist thought that emerged in Europe in the early 19th century
-literary and philosophical movement held that individuals could rise above material reality and ordinary understanding
-Ralph Waldo Emerson & Henry David Thoreau

Industrial Revolution

-brought people from the countryside to the cities and raised revenue but created bad working conditions
-growth of industry

Lowell System

-Makes use of Mill Girls
-factory system for textile industry
-rise of free labor - ability to do labor becomes a product that can be brought to market (people are essentially a commodity)
-rise of immigration because factories need workers, bring them in from abroad (irish and german) they are roman catholics and this creates anti-catholic force in the US

Daniel Webster

-senator from new hampshire
-famous orator
-works for the bank of the US as a lawyer

Cotton Gin

-Created by eli whitney
-takes the seeds out which is the most intensive labor
-creates king cotton which becomes the staple crop of the south

Nat Turner

-Revolt in 1831
-slave preacher who thought of himself as a prophet
-largest US slave revolt
-kills his master and his masters family in their sleep and then goes and kills 60 others (starts at night)
-eventually captured and hanged

Gag Rule

- In 1836, Southern Congressmen forbid the reading of antislavery petitions in Congress preventing a lot of Congressional debate on the slavery issue.

John C. Calhoun

representative of the southern ideal

Democratic Party

-Nationally-organized party
-party of Jefferson
-Agricultural economy
-Laissez-faire: less gov. involvement in economic affairs
-Limited gov.

Martin Van Buren

-Mastermind behind the organization of the democratic party
-from NY
-head of the Albany regency

5 Civilized Tribes

-Cherokee, Chickasaw, Choctaw, Creek, Seminole
-Over 700.000 Indians
-Removed because of Assimilation, Security, and Land
-1830 passage of the Indian Removal Bill

Trail of Tears

-Long march to Oklahoma
-2,000-8,000 deaths
-In the winter of 1838-1839 the Cherokee were forced to evacuate their lands in Georgia and travel under military guard to present-day OK. Due to exposure and disease, roughly 1/4 of the 16,000 forced migrants died en route

2nd seminole war

-Chief Osceola

Bank war

-Between 1823-1836 Andrew Jackson used his presidential power to fight and ultimately destroy the second Bank of the US
-Clay tries to make the Bank an issue for 1832 but Jackson vetoes the bank re-charter
-"The bank is trying to kill me, but I will kill it."

Pet Banks

-Jackson pulls government $$$ out of the bank of the US and distributes it to smaller pet banks


-the supposed right of any state to declare a federal law inoperative within its boundaries.
-Arises because of the tariffs of 1828 and 1832
-The north would support the tariff because they have industry and the tariffs help industry,the south doesn't like it because it makes usually cheap goods more expensive
-"Tariff of Abominations"

Whig Party

-Forms as a result of the bank war
-Clay's American System forms the basis for the platform
-industry, modernization & internal improvements
-Economic Liberty
-Evangelical Christianity
-Feared the tyranny of Jackson
-source of the Whig name
-did not want territorial expansion

Second Party System

-Democrats vs. Whigs
-Smaller third parties (Anti-Masonic)
-Different from the First Party System
-permanence of parties-built to last
-recognition of existence
-national organization

Panic of 1837

-financial crisis
-seen as a result of the Bank war and distribution of money into pet banks because it made the money too easy to loan out

William Henry Harrison

-Log cabin and hard cider campaign - begin to see modern campaigning
-Tippecanoe and Tyler Too
-Is the campaign or substance?
-Harrison and the Whigs Win
-Harrison dies in April 1841 (30 days after inauguration)

John Tyler

-replaces Harrison
-"his accidency"
-Fought with the whigs-his own party
-Vetoed every bill passed by Congress because of this fighting

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