Ch4 Terminology

166 terms by lizraccio 

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cartilage

Nonvascular, firm connective tissue found mostly in joints

chiropractic

Diagnosis, treatment, and prevention of mechanical disorders of the musculoskeletal system

chiropractor

practitioner of chiropractic

detoxification

removing poison from a tissue or substance

ligament

brand of fibrous tissue connecting two structures

muscle

a tissue consisting of cells that can contract

musculoskeletal

pertaining to the muscles and the bony skeleton

orthopedic

pertaining to the correction and cure of deformities and diseases of the musculoskeletal;originally, most deformities treated were in children

orthopedist

specialist in orthopedics

osteopath

practitioner of osteopathy

osteopathy

medical practice based on maintaining the balance of the body

tendon

fibrous band that connects muscle to bone

cortex

outer portion of an organ, such as bone

cortical

pertaining to the cortex

diaphysis

the shaft of a long bone

epiphysis

expanded area at the proximal and distal ends of a long bone to provide increased surface area for attachment of ligaments and tendons

epiphysial

pertaining to the an epiphysis

haversian canals

vascular canals in bones

marrow

fatty, blood forming tissue in the cavities of long bones

medulla

central portion of a structure surrounded by cortex

medullary

pertaining to a medulla

periosteum

strong membrane surrounding a bone

periosteal

pertaining to the periosteum

achondroplasia

condition with abnormal, early conversion of cartilage into bone, leading to dwarfism

osteogenesis imperfecta

inherited condition when bone formation is imcomplete, leading to fragile, easily broken bones

osteomalacia

soft, flexible bones lacking in calcium(rickets)

osteomyelitis

inflammation of bone tissue

osteopenia

decreased calcification of bone

osteoporosis

condition in which the bones become more porous, brittle and fragile and more likely to fracture

rickets

disease due to vitamin D deficiency, producing soft, flexible bones

sarcoma

malignant tumor originating in connective tissue

osteogenic sarcoma

malignant tumor originating in bone producing cells

alignment

having a structure in its correct position relative to others

comminuted

a fracture in which the bone is broken into pieces

malunion

when two bony ends of the fracture fail to heal together correctly

nonunion

total failure of healing of a fracture

osteoblast

a bone forming cell

osteocyte

a bone maintaining cell

pathologic fracture

fracture occurring at a site already weakened by a disease process, such as cancer

reduction

restore a structure to its normal position

traction

pulling or dragging force

cervical

pertaining to the neck region

coccyx

small tailbone at the lowest end of the vertebral column

kyphosis

a normal posterior curve of the spine that can be exaggerated in disease

kyphotic

pertaining to or suffering from kyphosis

lumbar

lower back

sacrum

segment of the vertebral column that forms part of the pelvis

sacral

pertaining to or om the neighbor hood of the sacrum

scoliosis

an abnormal lateral curvature of the vertebral column

scoliotic

pertaining to or suffering from scoliosis

spine

vertebral column or short projection from a bone

spinal

pertaining to the spine

vertebra

one of the bones of the spinal column

vertebral

pertaining to the vertebra

whiplash

symptoms caused by sudden, uncontrolled extension and flexion of the neck, often in an automobile accident

cranium

the upper part of the skull that encloses and protects the brain

cranial

pertaining to the skull

ethmoid

bone that forms the back of thenose and encloses numerous air cells

lacrimal

lacrimal bone forms part of the medial wall of the orbit, or pertaining to tears

mandible

lower jaw bone

mandibular

pertaining to the mandible

maxilla

upper jaw bone, containing both right and left maxillary sinuses

maxillary

pertaining to the maxilla

occipital

the back of the skull

palatine

bone that forms the hard palate and parts of the nose and orbits

parietal

the two bones forming the sidewalls and roof of the cranium

sphenoid

wedge shaped bone at the base of the skull

temporal

bone that forms part of the base and sides of the skull

temporomandibular

the joint between the temporal bone and the mandible

zygoma

bone that forms the prominence of the cheek

zygomatic

pertaining to the cheek bone

acromion

lateral end of the scapula, extending over the shoulder joint

acromioclavicular

joint between the acromion and the clavicle

articulate

two separate bones have formed a joint

articulation

a joint

clavicle

curved bone that forms the anterior part of the pectoral girdle

clavicular

pertaining to the clavicle

dislocation

completely out of joint

humerus

single bone of the upper arm

pectoral

pertaining to the chest

pectoral girdle

incomplete bony ring that attatches the upper limp to the axial skeleton

scapula

shoulder blade

scapular

pertaining to the shoulder blade

subluxation

an incomplete dislocation when some contact between the joint surfaces remains.

capitulum

a small head or rounded extremity of a bone

pronation

process of lying face down or of turning a hand or foot with the volar (palm or sole) surface face down

prone

lying face down, flat on your belly

radius

the forearm bone on the thumb side

radial

pertaining to the radius or to any of the structures (artery, vein, nerve) named after it

supination

process of lying face upward or of turning a hand or foot so that the palm or sole is facing up

supine

lying face up, flat on your spine

trochlea

smooth articular surface of bone on which another glides

trochlear

pertaining to the trochlea

ulna

the medial and larger bone of the forearm

ulnar

pertaining to the ulna or to any of the structures (artery, vein, nerve) named after it

arthritis

inflammation of a joint or joints

carpus

the eight carpal bones of the wrist

carpal

pertaining to the wrist

metacarpal

the five bones between the carpus and the fingers

colles fracture

fracture of the distal radius at the wrist

eponym

a procedure or a diagnosis with a name derived from the name of the person who discovered it

heberden node

bony lump on the terminal phalanx of the fingers in osteoarthritis

metacarpophalangeal

the joints between the metacarpal bones and the phalanges

osteoarthritis

chronic inflammatory disease of joints

phalanx

one of the bones of the digits (fingers or toes)

phalanges

fingers or toes

rheumatism

pain in various parts of the musculoskeletal system

rheumatic

pertaining to or characterized by rheumatism

rheumatoid arthritis

systemic disease affecting many joints

acetabulum

the cup shaped cavity of the hip bone that receives the head of the femur to form the hip joint

femur

the thigh bone

femoral

pertaining to the femur

ilium

large wing shaped bone at the upper and posterior part of the pelvis

ischium

lower and posterior part of the hip bone

ischial

pertaining to the ischium

pelvis

basin shaped ring of bones, ligaments, and muscles at the base of the spine. also any basin shaped cavity like the pelvis of the kidney

pelvic

pertaining to the pelvis

pubis

alternative name for the pubic bone

pubic

pertaining to the pubic bone

sacroiliac joint

the joint between the sacrum and the ilium

symphysis

two bones joined by fibrocartilage; in this case, two pubic bones

arthrodesis

fixation or stiffening of a joint by surgery

brace

appliance to support a part of the body in its correct position

diastasis

separation of normally joined parts

radiology

the study of medical imaging

radiologist

medical specialist in the use of x-rays and other imaging techniques

arthrodesis

fixation or stiffening of a joint by surgery

arthroplasty

surgery to repair, as far as possible, the function of a joint

avascular

without blood supply

labrum

cartilage that forms a rim around the socket of the hip joint

necrosis

pathologic death of cells or tissues

necrotic

pertaining to an area affected by necrosis

prosthesis

an artificial part to remedy a defect in the body

prosthetic

pertaining to a prosthesis

collateral

situated at the side, often to bypass an obstruction

cruciate

shaped like a cross

fibula

the smaller of the two bones of the lower leg

fibular

pertaining to the fibula

meniscus

disc of cartilage between the bones of a joint, in this case, the knee joint

patella

think circular bone in front of the knee joint embedded in the patellar tendon; knee cap

tibia

the larger bone of the lower leg

tibial

pertaining to the tibia

arthrocentesis

aspiration of fluid from a joint

arthrography

xray of a joint taken after the injection of a contrast medium into the joint

arthroscopy

visual examination of the interior of a joint

arthroscope

Endoscope used to examine the interior of a joint

bursa

a closed sac containing synovial fluid

bursitis

inflammation of the bursa

debridement

the removal of injured or necrotic tissue

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