Law enforcement, the courts and corrections
The three main components into which the contemporary criminal justice system is divided.
This is the stage of the formal criminal justice process at which the defendant enters a plea of guilty or not guilty.
The justice perspective that demands an efficient system that hands out tough sanctions to those who violate the law?
According to this view of crime, behaviors that become crimes are essentially harmful to majority of citizens and therefore there is general agreement regarding with behaviors need to be controlled
The Uniform Crime Report (UCR)
This annual report is considered the most widely cited source of criminal statistics?
Monitoring the Future
One of the most important sources of self-report data is this study, conducted annually using approximately 2,500 high school seniors.
In the landmark study
Delinquency in a Birth Cohort, researchers found that chronic offenders committed approximately ______ percent of all offenses
The idea that a potential criminal would fear punishment because they know of someone else who was punished.
This theory suggests that some people adopt the goals of society but lack the means to attain them and will therefore seek alternatives, such as crime.
According to Sampson and Laub, marriage and this factor are the two most critical turning points in a criminal career.
absence of effective guardians for protection
The three factors linked to predatory crime rates in routine activities theory are a supply of motivated offenders, a supply of suitable targets and this factor.
This type criminal law is primarily concerned with defining crimes and their punishment
The common law latin term defines a system that promotes stability and certainty in legal decisions.
The Bill of Rights
The ten amendments to the Constitution that serve as the main source of procedural law.
The fourth amendment
The constitutional amendment that outlaws illegal searches and seizures by police
Sir Robert (Bobbie) Peel
This individual was responsible for their creation of the London Metropolitan Police Department.
The Broken Windows Theory
Aggressive patrol in New York City during the 1990s aimed at vandalism, panhandling and graffiti, and which has been credited with a reduction in crime, is based on this theory.
Police officers who work in conjunction with citizens, rather than remaining neutral and detached are practicing this model of policing.