psych test 3

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general intelligence factor

Aidan is a bright young man, who scored very high on both the Critical Reading and Mathematics sections of the SAT. He is an excellent map-reader and his reasoning abilities are fantastic. According to Spearman, what is likely underlying these abilities?

analytical

type of intelligence assessed by intelligence tests, which present well-defined problems having a single right answer.

MA/CA

Binets equation to determine IQ

semantics

part of language that includes vocabulary and symbols.

syntax

the grammar and structure of language is called

phoneme

most basic unit of sound in a language

morpheme

most basic unit of language that has meaning

production

if someone has damaged their motor cortex and/or the brocas area, they would have trouble with ____ of language

comprehension

If someone has damaged their auditory cortex and/or their wernickes area, they would have trouble with ______ of language

secure

attachment style where the child is fairly distressed when mom leaves and very happy when she returns

avoidant

attachment style where the child is unresponsive when mom leaves and is slow to greet her or avoids her upon return

ambivalent

attachment style where the child is very upset and panicky when mom leaves and is angry or resistant upon her return

authoritative

Parenting style that includes being warm and exerting control. Clear and consistent rules, good communication, reward compliance,

authoritarian

Parenting style that includes being cold and exerting control. Cold, unresponsive, rejecting. Like a dictatorship.

indulgent

Parenting style that includes no control but a lot of warmth. No guidance, no discipline

neglectful

Parenting style that includes no control and no warmth. "I have kids?"

temperment

general tendencies to feel or act in certain ways

objective

Tests that assess personality via self reported information. includes the MMPI-2

Id

The part of Freuds model of personality that is responsible for basic biological urges. Satisfaction now regardless of consequences

superego

The part of Freuds model of personality that is also known as the conscience. Responsible for family and societal rules.

Ego

The part of Freuds model of personality that is the mediator. Tries to meet basic biological impulses while abiding by family and societal rules.

projective

tests that assess personality via ambiguous stimuli and then a response to it. Problems with validity and reliability

repression

defense mechanism that includes ignoring a specific thought or thoughts

displacement

"drag and drop" defense mechanism. When a desire in one context cannot be fulfilled, it carries on to other situations. Someone is mad at their boss goes and yells at their spouse

reaction formation

defense mechanism where people "do the opposite". Ie person wants to date someone and it doesnt work so they then hate the person.

rationalization

defense mechanism where unacceptable behaviors may be reinterpreted as positive. for example, if you cant reach the grapes, they must be sour.

projection

defense mechanism where ones own blocked desires become projected onto the other person. ie i hate by boss, he must hate me.

humanistic

theory of personality that focuses on what makes us human, ie. free choice, growth potential, self-actualization.

humanistic

theory of personality based on hierarchy of needs leading to self-transcendence needs

james lange

Theory of emotion in which something happens (ie a car comes at you) and you have a physiological reaction followed then by emotions

cannon baird

Theory of emotion where two things happen simultaneously and the thalamus sends a stimuli to your gut and your brain

2 factor

Theory of emotion that involves thinking about whats going on. Two parallel processes when a stimulus is encountered. physiological response tells you how much of something you feel, but you need cognitive process to tell you what you. For example you sweat because theres a pretty girl, why?

autonomic

part of nervous system that is involved in emotion

amygdala

part of brain that is involved in emotion by processing emotional significance of stimuli, and generates immediate emotional reactions

orbitofrontal

Part of the cortex that is involved in processing of emotional cues, especially the ones related to interpersonal reactions

problem focused

type of coping that is characterized by active attempts to respond to demands of a situation. For example, if theres a test you are not ready for, you go study.

emotion focused

type of coping that is characterized by the minimization of emotional distress. Does not solve the problem. For example, if you have a test you arent ready for you take a bath to relax.

Social support

type of coping that is characterized by getting help from friends/family

General adaptation syndrome (GAS)

Model that predicts long term effects of stressors on health

alarm

first stage of GAS, where the sympathetic nervous system is turned on

Resistance

Second stage of GAS, where prolonged stress (a few minutes or more) leads to release of stress hormones like cortisol

exhaustion

Third stage of GAS, where the long term stress has a negative effect on health

reliability

consistency of a measure

validity

extent to which a test measures what it is supposed to

standardization

involves uniform testing procedures

ma/ca

how to calculate binets IQ

reaction range

the range of someones IQ score that is due to their environment

sensorimotor

Stage of cognitive development at about 0-2 years of age where the world is experienced through senses. Object permamance and stranger anxiety are

Preoperational

Stage of cognitive development from about 2-7 years of age where children start to develop language but lack logical thinking. Egocentricism and pretend play are in this stage

Concrete operational

Stage of cognitive development from 7-11 years of age where kids can think logically about concrete events and understand the concept of conservation. Cannot think abstractly

formal operational

Stage of cognitive development from 11 years and older where people can think logically about abstract topics and are capable of moral reasoning.

critical period

Time that is idea for children to be exposed to certain stimuli in order to achieve normal development

heritability

extent to which differences among people are attributed to genes

perconventional

stage of morality exhibited in children 9 and under. focused on self-interest. Only listens to rules to avoid direct punishment

conventional

stage of morality exhibited by adolescences that focuses on caring for others and upholding laws and rules

postconventional

third level of mortality where actions can be judged as "right" because they flow from peoples rights, or self defined basic ethical principles

crystallized

type of intelligence that is our accumulated knowledge

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