Peace of Westphalia
This was a peace treaty that ended the Thirty Years' War in 1648 in the Holy Roman Empire and the Eighty Years' War between Spain and the Dutch Republic. It recognized the independent authority of over three hundred German principalities.
A civil war in France that began in 1635. The Frond was divide into two parts, the Fronde of the parliaments and a body of French nobles who rebelled against Louis XIV.
An economic system in Europe in 18th century to increase a nation's wealth by the government regulation of all of the nation's commercial interests.
Peace of Utrecht
This was the compromises of a series of treaties that ended the War of the Spanish Succession in 1713; The treaties between several European states, including Spain, Great Britain, France, Portugal, Savoy, and the Dutch Republic.
was a member of the landed nobility of Prussia and eastern Germany (Brandenburg). This nobles where loyal to Frederick William by not profited from taxes and in return had special privileges; also, ruled over serfdom.
A member of a class of higher Russian nobility that until the time of Peter I headed the civil and military administration of the country and participated in an early duma.
Where runaway peasants who revolted against nobles who had complete power over serfdom; this power was granted by Ivan IV. Russians who conquered and settled Siberia in the sixteenth and seventeenth centuries
A ruler of a Muslim country, especially of the former Ottoman Empire. Own all Ottoman Land and ruled in a form in which rich and poor alike depended on him.
The Christian slaves of the Ottomans who were not eligible for government positions and served instead as a part of the Ottoman military.
divided regions in the Ottoman Empire by religion (Orthodox Christians, Jews, Armenian Christians, Muslims). Leaders of each millet supported the Sultan in exchange for power over their millet.
A basic principle that government and those who govern must obey the law. It limited the power of the Monarchy.