basic unit of matter
the simplest structural unit of an element or compound
a molecule composed of one kind of atom; cannot be broken into simpler units by chemical reactions.
protons, neutrons, and electrons
atoms of the same element that differ in the number of neutrons they contain
the particles of the nucleus that have no charge
positively charged particles located in the nucleus
negatively charged particle located in the electron cloud
energy-rich organic compound, such as a sugar or a starch, that is made of the elements carbon, hydrogen, and oxygen
energy-rich organic compounds, such as fats, oils, and waxes, that are made of carbon, hydrogen, and oxygen
contains carbon, hydrogen, oxyge, and nitrogen. source of energy. needed by tissue for repair and growth. made up of amino acids. muscles
Polymers of nucleotides; used to store and transmit hereditary, or genetic, information; RNA and DNA
an attraction between two atoms resulting from the sharing of outer-shell electrons or the presence of opposite charges
the process in which chemical bonds are broken and/or formed
bond created by the weak attraction of a slightly positive hydrogen atom to a slightly negative portion of another molecule
energy needed to get a chemical reaction started
an atom or molecule that has gained or lost one or more electrons and has a negative or positive charge
a chemical bond in which one atom loses an electron to form a positive ion and the other atom gains to electron to form a negative ion
a chemical bond that involves sharing a pair of electrons between atoms in a molecule
Polar Covalent Bonds
a covalent bon in which the electrons were shared unequally
Non Polar Covalent Bond
a covalent bond in which the electrons were shared equally
a measure of how acidic or basic a solution is (7=neutral)
a pH below 7 is
pH above 7 is
compound that contains carbon bonded to hydrogen and is found in living things
a single sugar (like sucrose or fructose)
A double sugar, consisting of two monosaccharides joined by dehydration synthesis.
long polymer chain made up of simple sugar monomers
compounds with the same chemical formula but different structures
a lipid made from fatty acids that have no double bonds between carbon atoms (worse for you)
A lipid made from fatty acids that have at least one double bond between carbon atoms (better for you)
A molecule that has a polar, hydrophilic head and a nonpolar, hydrophobic tail.
building blocks of proteins
The bonds connecting amino acids together to form polypeptide chains.
chains of amino acids linked together by peptide bonds
The first level of protein structure; the specific sequence of amino acids making up a polypeptide chain.
The second level of protein structure; the regular local patterns of coils or folds of a polypeptide chain.
The third level of protein structure; the overall, three-dimensional shape of a polypeptide due to the amino acids making up the chain.
the tendency for nonpolar amino acids to avoid water
the bonding between more than one polypeptide structure
large compound formed from combinations of many monomers
a simple compound whose molecules can join together to form polymers
Basic units of DNA molecule, composed of a sugar, a phosphate, and one of 4 DNA bases
a colorless crystalline nitrogen-containing organic base
nitrogenous bases that have a single ring of carbon and nitrogen atoms
a very large organic molecule, usually a polymer, composed of hundreds or thousands of atoms