A system of communication through the use of speech, a collection of sounds understood by a group of people to have the same meaning
A form of a language spoken in a certain geographical region that has its own grammar, pronunciation, and vocabulary.
A collection of languages related to each other through a common ancestor long before recorded history.
A collection of languages within a branch that share a common origin in the relatively recent past and display relatively few differences in grammar and vocabulary.
A geographic boundary within which a particular linguistic feature occurs
People who speak their language but cannot write it
a dialect that is well established and widely reconized as the most acceptable for goverment, business, education, and mass comunication
a family (or phylum) of several hundred related languages and dialects, including most major languages of Europe, Iran, and northern India, and historically also predominant in Anatolia and Central Asia.
Languages diffuse and cause long-isolated languages to make contact.
Languages of traditional, numerically smaller, and technoligically less advanced people have been replaced, or greatly modified, by the languages of invaders.
A basic process of language formation; it is the differation of a language over time and space
the diversification of languages that have been charted through analysis
Technique using the vocabulary of an extinct language to recreate the language that proceeded it.
Geolinguists theorize that a lost language, or set of languages.
The core of a pre-Proto-Indo-European language.
A family of indigenous American languages. Second oldest & largest family. Less widely diffused
The oldest, largest, and most widely distributed language family; spread from the shores of Hudson Bay to the coast of Tierra el Fuego.
the last to arrive in North America who are still concentrated along Arctic and near-Arctic shores
Source:mountainous well watered terrain of modern Turkey
theory that was long supported by a majority of archeologists, linguists, and human geographers
The systematic study of place-names.
already used by the educated and will enhance communication and interaction among peoples who speak diffrent traditional languages
countries in which only one language is spoken
Countries in which more than one language is in use
Any common langauage spoken by people with different native tounges.
A language, through contact with other languages, that is simplified and modified
The original pidgin becomes a lingua franca.
An artificial tongue that would eventually become the first or second language of all peoples everywhere.
the prejudice that members of one race are intrinsically superior to members of other races
Identity with a group of people that share distinct physical and mental traits as a product of common heredity and cultural traditions.
A society composed of numerous ethnic groups.
small, usually rural and ethnically homogeneous enclaves situated within a larger and more diverse cultural context.
a culturally shared trait that gives an ethnic or cultural group a strengthened sense of awareness and self-identity
the process of continuous reinvigoration of cultural traits and behavior in communities geographically separated from their original source area
group of languages with more commonality than a language family