ch. 5-8

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yates monday night class ch 5-8

quality of life crimes

The vast majority of arrests the police make are for:

motor vehicle or traffic related issues

Most of people contacts involve:

very ambiguous

The police role is:

information

Robert Lilly's research concluded that the majority of police calls are in reference to:

maintaining order, and protecting live and property

Sheehan and Cordner state that the two primary goals and objectives of police departments are:

dreamers

Which of the following is not one of Broderick's police operational system? enforcers, dreamers, realists, optimists

enforcer

Officer Smith believes her role is to maintain order on her beat by arresting criminals. According to Broderick, she would be considered a/an:

idealist

Officer Brown believes his role is keeping the peace and preserving the social order, yet he is very careful not to violate the constitutional rights of individuals. According to Broderick, he would be considered a/an:

realist

Officer Green believes that it is impossible to achieve the goals and objectives of the police department and concentrates his efforts on the concept of police loyalty and the mutual support of his fellow officers. According to Broderick, he would be considered a/an:

optimist

Officer White concentrates her efforts on helping people in trouble, rather than on keeping society safe. According to Broderick, she would be considered a/an:

watchman

The Bigtown Police Department maintains order through informal police intervention, including persuasion and threats, or hassling or roughing up disruptive people instead of formal arrests. According to James Q Wilson, it would be considered to be a ___ department.

legalistic

The Largetown Police Department issues many summonses and makes many misdemeanor arrests. According to James Q Wilson, it would be considered to be a _____ department.

service

The Smalltown Police Department uses social service agencies to provide counseling for minor offenders. According to James Q Wilson, it would be considered to be a ____ department.

tremendous

Police officers have ____ discretion.

the police officer

The first decision maker in the criminal justice system and often the most important is:

geographic area of the crime

Which of the following is not one of the reasons police exercise discretion? department policies, characteristics of the crime, relationship between the alleged criminal and the victim or the police, geographic area of the crime

time of day

Which of the following is not one of the major factors Herbert Jacob says causes the police to exercise discretion? time of day, subject's attitude, subject's race, the offender

prisoner attempting escape who was being held in a high security system

Which of the following is part of the federal government's imminent danger standard for use of deadly force? firing warning shots, shooting at moving vehicles, prisoner attempting escape who was being held in a high security system, non-fatally shooing a suspect in the leg

oleoresin capsicum

The scientific name for pepper spray is:

Model Penal Code

In the 1970s, the American Law Institute proposed a(n) ____, which included new policies on the use of deadly force.

as uncommitted time

Most police patrol time is spent:

seriousness of the offense committed

Studies of police discretion have shown that the most significant factor in the decision to arrest is the:

male officers and male offenders

Ninety-eight percent of police shootings involve:

African Americans

Research concludes that a disproportionate number of ___ are justifiably killed by police officers.

trust

Which of the following is not indicative of the police culture? trust, clannishness, honor, individuality

the blue wall of silence

The refusal of some police officers to report fellow officer's misconduct is called:

Jerome Skolnick

Who coined the term "working personality" of the police?

authority

Which of the following is not one of the three important features of an officer's working environment that can account for the police personality, according to researchers Burbeck and Furnham? rotating shifts of duty, authority, isolation from the public, danger

the socialization process in the police academy, field training, and patrol experience

The majority of recent studies have found that the police "working personality" comes from:

the moral dilemma officers face when they can use evil means to achieve good ends

The Dirty Harry problem refers to:

command stress

Which of the following is not one of the four general categories of police stress discovered by researchers? external stress, organizational stress, personal stress, command stress

personal stress

The stress produced by the interpersonal characteristics of belonging to the police organization, such as difficulties in getting along with other officers, is classified as:

early retirement

Which of the following is not one of the factors leading to stress in police work? poor training, role conflict, exposure to brutality, early retirement

becoming emotionally detached from their work and the citizens they are paid to protect

Mary Hageman says that the pressure of being on duty 24 hours a day leads to stress and that the police learn to cope with that stress by:

all

Which of the following do Territo and Vetter offer as a factor that might explain the high rates of suicide among police officers as a result of stress? the use availability and familiarity with firearms, the psychological repercussions to constantly being exposed to potential death, long and irregular working hours which do not promote strong friendships and which strain family ties

20-30%

Researchers estimate that between ___ of all police officers have drinking problems.

the constant exposure of police officers to members of the opposite gender

Which of the following is not a job-related issue that contributes to family dysfunction in police families, according to Ellen Scrivner? family disruption due to rotating shifts, unpredictable work environment, the constant exposure of police officers to members of the opposite gender, community expectations and demands

blue curtain

A situation in which police officers only trust other police officers and do not aid in the investigation of wrongdoing by other officers is called the:

police cynicism

The attitude that there is no hope for the world and a view of humanity at its worst is called:

11%

Suicide by cop incidents accounted for ___ of municipal police shootings.

marital problems

According to research, what is the leading problem among police officers?

programs to handle personal stress and physical fitness programs

Which of the following ranked highest in programs most requested by police officers according to an FBI training needs survey of almost 2,500 police departments? more firearms training, programs to handle personal stress and physical fitness programs, physical fitness programs and more firearms training, programs on how to deal in a less stressful manner with supervisors

psychological

At least 42 states offer ___ tests to police applicants in order to prevent the appointment of officers who may overreact to law enforcement stress.

true

true or false: The police do not exercise discretion because the police want to show they have a caring attitute toward the community.

William Westley

Who was the researcher who conducted the classic study of the police subculture in Gary, Indiana.

Arthur Niederhoffer

The best known study of the police personality, Behind the Shield, was written by __.

among the top ten stressful jobs in America

The American Institute of Stress ranked police work __.

African Americans

According to research, what subgroup was more likely to use constructive coping relating to stress?

female

A study on police depression revealed that __ officers had higher levels of depression.

25%

According to a study conducted by Chad Cross and Larry Ashley, __ of law enforcement officers are alcohol dependant as a result of on-the-job stress.

New York

The first African American police officer was appointed in what city?

double marginality

The book Black in Blue found that black police officers suffered from __.

consent agreement

An agreement between parties in a court action before and instead of a decision by a judge is called a __.

true

There were no basic differences between the way males and females working as a patrol team reacted to violent confrontations according to Professor Sean Grannan.

almost identical

A study conducted by James David in Texas and Oklahoma revealed that arrest rates for men and women police officers are __.

Omnibus Crime Control and Safe Streets Act of 1968

What act was enacted with the goal of assisting local governments in reducing the incidence of crime by increasing the effectiveness, fairness, and coordination of law enforcement and the criminal justice system.

physical agility

What type of fitness test was developed to reduce adverse impact in the selection process.

Aristotle

The Greek philospher who wrote the classic Nicomachean Ethics was __.

true

Examples of the ethical standards established to determine how police officers should act is an oath of office, the Law Enforcement Code of Ethics, and organizational value systems or codes of ethics.

true

US Constitution, Bill of Rights, and case laws as determined by appellate courts and the US Supreme Court are standards governing police ethics.

Wickersham Commission

The 1931 National Commission of Law Observance and Enforcement was more popularly known as the ___.

Frank Serpico

The honest New York City plainclothes officer whose revelations about police corruption led to the legendary Knapp Commission was __.

creation of internal affairs division

The major resource used to combat corruption by many police departments is the __.

more prevalent

Some studies indicate that domestic violence may be __ in police families when compared to the general public.

arrest

Jerome Skolnick wrote that police deception does not occur at the __ level.

dropsy testimony

Police testimony that narcotics they found on the ground were dropped by persons they arrested has been called __.

police brutality

the excessive or unreasonable use of force in dealing with citizens, suspects, and offenders is the definition of

computer programs

Early warning systems typically use __ that flag officers who may be prone to problems when interacting with the public.

public wrong

A tort is a __.

true

Improved training, better screening of applicants, and citizen review are all proposed solutions to police brutality.

14th

Section 1983 of Title 42 of the US Code was originally enacted by Congress as a means of enforcing the __ Amendment guarantee of rights to the newly freed slaves.

27%

What percent of the largest US cities have established some form of citizen review board in which the citizens actively participate?

true

It would make police officers more aggressive in enforcing the law, would not be an argument in favor of citizen reviews.

true

It prevents law-breakers from being punished for their crimes, would not be an argument against citizen reviews.

61%

In a 2005 Gallup poll asking respondents to rate the honesty and ethical standards of various occupations, the police came in with __ of respondents rating them either high or very high in honesty and ethical standards.

Knapp Commission

__ was created in response to a series of articles in the New York Times detailing widespread corruption.

grass-eaters

Police officers who participate in the more passive types of police corruption are referred to as __.

noble cause corruption

What stems from ends-oriented policing and involves police officers bending the rules to achieve the "right" goal of putting a criminal jail?

biased-based policing

Any police-initiated activity that relies on a person's race or ethnic background rather than on behavior as a basis for identifying that individual as being involved in criminal activity is called __.

Mapp v. Ohio

In the case of __ the US Supreme Court ruled that to be liable, police departments must be deliberately indifferent to the needs of the people with whom police come in contact.

blue veil

The code of silence is often referred to as the blue curtain or __.

Knapp Commission

This commission was formed to investigate New York City police corruption in the 1990s.

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