levers for support and locomotion
strength and compactness
protective function and broad surfaces for muscle attachment
areas where bones link together
where joints pivot or hinge
fluid present that lubricates the articulating surfaces, allowing bones to glide across each other
joined by fibrous cartilage and reinforcing ligaments
latin for "gristle", the tough, shiny, fibrous tissue covering the articulating surfaces and protecting bones by absorbing pressure and reducing friction
strong fibers that join bones together; usually nonelastic and white, but some are yellow and more stretchy
the tapered ends of muscle that attach to bone
What is the skull composed of?
the cranium (helmet) and face
What bones make up the cranium?
Parietal, Temporal, Sphenoid, Ethmoid, Occipital
What is the parietal bone?
the sides and top of the cranium
What is the temporal bone?
the temples and ear canals
What is the sphenoid bone?
wedge at front of base
What is the ethmoid bone?
sieve at the base of nasal cavaties
What is the occipital bone?
caput, or back of cranium
What bones make up the face?
Frontal, Zygomatic (Malar), Maxilla, Mandible, Nasal: turbinate, vomar, lacrimal
What is the frontal bone?
What is the zygomatic (Malar) bone?
What is the maxilla bone?
What is the mandible bone?
What are the turbinate, vomar, and lacrimal?
What are the nasal bones?
turbinate, vomar, lacrimal
What are sutures?
seams that connect the uneven surfaces of the skull bones
What is the foramen magnum?
the hole at the base of the skull through which the brain stem passes
What are the occipital condyles?
two bumps that fit onto the topmost vertebra, or atlas to forn the atlanto-occipital joint
What is the occipital protuberance?
posterior point of skull where neck muscles attach
What is the mastoid process?
part of the temporal bone, important for neck muscle attachment
What is the styloid process?
part of the temporal bone, which is a pillar for balancing the skull on the spine, and another key muscle attachment site
How many primary teeth do children have?
How many permanent teeth do adults have?
At what time do primary teeth erupt in babies?
6 months to a year old
At about what age period do primary teeth come in?
6 to 14 years old
When do wisdom teeth erupt?
17 to 21 years of age
What is the cementum?
a layer of tough, yellowish, bone-like tissue that covers the root of a tooth; it helps hold the tooth in the socket; the cementum contains the periodintal membrane
What is the crown?
the visible part of a tooth
What is the dentin?
the hard but porous tissue located under both the enamel and cementum of the tooth; it's harder than bone
What is the enamel?
the tough, shiny, white outer surface of the tooth
What are the gums?
the soft tissue that surrounds the base of the teeth
What are nerves?
transmit signals (conveying messages like hot, cold, or pain) to and from the brain
What is the periodontal membrane/ligament?
the fleshy tissue between the tooth and the tooth socket; it holds the tooth in place
Where are the fibers of the periodontal membrane located?
in the cementum
What is the pulp?
the soft center of the tooth; it contains blood vessels and nerves; it nourishes the dentin
What is the root?
the anchor of a tooth that extends into the jawbone; the number of roots number from one to four
What are the main functions of the bony thorax?
protectiong of vital organs, movements responsible for breathing, support and attachment for back and torso muscle
How many ribs are there?
12 on each side of the body (24 total)
What is the sternum?
What are true ribs and how many are there?
they attach to the sternum, and 14 of them (first 7 on each side)
What are false ribs and how many are there?
they do not attach to the sternum, and 10 of them (5 pairs)
What is the costal arch?
where false ribs join below the sternum
Define floating ribs
the final two ribs not attached at all in the front, which thus remain mobile; ribs are not entirely bony all the way around and become cartilaginous before joining the sternum anteriorly
Define what the costovertebral join is
Where each rib articulates with the spine; the ribs roatate here; occurs at the junction of the bodies of two vertebrae and includes the disc spacel note that all ribs are not identical, and they dont all move in the same way; for example, the first ribsb are shorter and flatter and move very little compared to the lower ribs
What is the clavicle?
collar bone - joins the sternum in front at the sternoclavicular joint
What is the scapulae?
floats on the posterior rib cage, giving it a great deal of freedom of movement
What is the acromion process?
at the crest of the spine and scapula, important for articulation with the clavicle at the acromuiclavicular joint for muscle attachments
What is the coracoid process?
an anterior projection of the scaplua (like a crow's beak) for the attachment of the pectorals
What is the glenoid cavity?
depression in the scapula that forms the socet for the humerus
What is the humerus?
upper arm bone
What is the ulna?
forms elbow and goes down to the pinky side of the forearm
What is the radius?
lies on the thumb side of the forearm, articulates with the wrist bones
What is the interosseus membrane?
a fibrous sheet that holds these two (radius and ulna) together as one unit
What is the trochlea?
rounded groove at the end of the humerus which articulates with the ulna
What is the superior readio-ulnar joint?
lies just below the lateral epicondyle of the humerus
What is the inferior radio-ulnar joint?
where the radius crosses over the ulna when the wrist is rotated
What is the olecranon?
the point of your elbow - a part of the ulna not the humerus
What is the medial epicondyle?
bump on the inside of the elbow - "the funny bone" which is actually a projection of the humerus
Define lateral epicondyle
smaller projection on the other side of the humerus, important for muscle attachment
What is the difference between cartilage and ligaments?
cartilage is ON bone and ligaments BOND bones
How many bones are there in the wrist?
What are the wrist bones called?
What are the carpal bones?
scaphoid, trapezium, trapezoid, lunate, triquetral, pisiform, capitate, hamate
What are the metacarpal bones?
the 5 bones of the hand (palm)
What are the bones of the hand (palm) called?
What are the phalanges?
How many phalanges are there?
14 on each hand (3 for each finger and 2 for each thumb)
What is the radiocarpal joint?
radius articulates with the scaphoid and lunate carpal bones
What is the midcarpal joint?
between the 1st and 2nd row of carpal bones, allows flexion in the wrist
Define what the metacarpophalangeal joint is
this forms the knuckle or the first finger joint
What is the interphalangeal joint?
the hinge joints that flex the fingers (proximal and distal)
Define what the trapeziometacarpal join is
the saddle joint that gives humans their opposable thumbs because of its wide range of motion; one of the most importnat primate adaptations
What is one of the most important primate adaptations?
the trapeziometacarpal joint
What is the scaphoid?
a bone in the wrist - boat shaped
What is the trapezium?
a bone in the wrist - table shape - base of the thumb
What is the trapezoid?
a bone in the wrist - table shaped but smaller
What is the lunate?
a bone in the wrist - cresent moon shape
What is the triquetral?
a bone in the wrist - has three corners
What is the pisiform?
a bone in the wrist that is pea-shaped
What is the capitate?
a bone in the wrist - head shaped
What is the hamate?
a bone in the wrist - hook shaped
How many vertebrae are in the spine?
What is the spine?
also known as the backbone, it's a flexible column of individual vertebrae supported by a large and complex series of muscles; it is the central core of the skeletal structure
How many vertebrae are movable?
How many vertebrae are fused?
What are the 24 movable vertebare?
the cervical (neck), thoracic (chest), and lumbar (lower back)
What are the 9 fused vertebrae?
sacral (pelvic) and coccygeal (tailbone)
How many vertebrae are in the cervical region?
How many vertebrae are in the thoracic region?
How many vertebrae are in the lumbar region?
How many vertebrae are in the sacral region?
How many vertebrae are in the coccygeal region?
What is the body of the centrum?
the front round part of the vertebrae; they are smaller at the top, and become larger near the lumbar region where they support more weight
What is the arch?
the back part consisting of the projections or processes which join together and form a hole for the spinal cord, and the exits for the nerves that go out to the body
What is the pedicle?
sides of the spinal canal
What is the lamina?
flat sheet joining the pedicles to complete the spinal canal
What are the vertebral foramen?
space created for the spinal canal
What is the transverse process?
projects laterally or sideways from the arch
What is the spinous process?
where the lamina join, the most posterior point of the vertebrae, what you feel when you touch the spine in your back
What are the superior and inferior articular processes?
fit neatly together in a series of joints along the spine's length
What is the intervetrebeal foramen?
for the passage of spinal nerves laterally, the gaps between the pedicles of adjacent vertebra
Define what the C1 is
C1 = altas; supports the globe of the head; this vertebrae has no body
What is the vertebrae that has no body?
the C1 atlas
What is the C2?
C2 = axis; forms a pivot upon which the atlas rotates; has a projection called the odontoid process or dens (tooth), which extends up with anterior arch of the atlas, allowing the head to rotate in relation to the spine
What is the atlanto-occipital joint joint for?
What is the atlanto-axial joint for?
turning or rotating the head
What are the supportive ligaments of the spine?
interspinous ligament, supraspinous ligament, intertransverse ligaments, ligamentum flava, anterior longitudinal ligament, posterior longitudinal ligament, and the ligamentum nuchae
What is the interspinous ligament?
runs between spinous processes
What is the supraspinous ligament?
runs down the length of the spinous processes
What are the intertransverse ligaments?
connects transverse processses of the vertebrae
What is the ligamentum flava?
runs between lamina connecting the movable joints of the spine
What is the anterior longitudinal lligament?
runs along the front of the bodies of the vertebrae
What is the posterior longitudinal ligament?
runs along the back of the bodies of the vertebrae inside the spinal canal
What is the ligamentum nuchae?
connects skull to the spine
What are intevetrebral discs?
wedge shaped discs that gives the spine its curves; consist of a tough fibrous outershell encasing a nucleus and fluid; when subjected to pressure, it will lose fluid over time
What can happen to intevetrebral discs?
lose fluid over time; rupture or herniate from abuse, the fluid can extruse and compress the spinal cord or nerve - often called a "slipped disc" or "sciatica"
What is the best way to align the spine?
strengthen the muscles that support it, to ensure a healthy alignment since vertebrae can be easily displaced
What is the pelvis?
latin for "basin", it is firmly attached to the spine at teh sacrum; the main function isto provide a structure for support and locomotion on two limbs by transferring the weight of the body down through the legs and absorbing shock from the legs, as well as providing a place for powerful leg muscles to attach
What are the innominate bones?
the two wing-like bones of the pelvis, it means "nameless"; they are made up of three bones
What are the three bones that make up the pelvis?
the illium, ischium, and pubic
Are the illium, ischium, and pubic attached?
yes, they are rigidly attached and function as one unit
What is the illium?
the flank bone
What is the ischium?
the hip bone
What is the pubic bone?
it forms the anterior arch
What is the bottom part of the pelvis which forms the sit bones called?
What are the bones you sit on called?
the ischial tuberosities