French Protestants, during the Wars of Religion
Saint Bartholomew's Day Massacre
The growing power of the Huguenots frightened French Queen Mother Catherine di Medici. Catherine supported the killing of 20,000 Protestants in three days across France. This event ignited a 15 year war between French Catholics and Huguenots.
A ruler who sets aside his/her religious views to achieve political goals, esp. unity. The most successful was Elizabeth I, followed by Henry IV (Henry of Navarre)
William of Orange
Scottish leader and strong Protestant, married Mary II, James II's daughter. Was invited to invade England by Parliament, ruled jointly with Mary.
Mary vs. Elizabeth I of England
The first was a strict Catholic, who forced her religion on her subjects and executed hundreds of Protestants. Her successor (and half-sister) was an extremely successful politique who unified and strengthened England after years of religious and political turmoil.
Edict of Nantes
Henry IV (Henry of Navarre) made this declaration, which legalized Calvinism in France and gave rights to French Protestants.
"Paris is worth a mass"
Henry IV is said to have given this as his reason for converting to Catholicism. Henry was a politique, and converted to appease the Catholics in his country and unify France.
Treaty of Westphalia 1648
1. Gave rules the right to determine the faith of their own territories,
2. Formally legalized Calvinism, and
3. Recognized Switzerland and the Netherlands (the Dutch Republic) as independent nations.
Defenestration at Prague
In response to the forced closing of their churches, Protestants in Bohemia threw Catholic officials out of a window.
Phillip II sent this force to attack England. A combination of Elizabeth I's strategy and bad weather led to the English navy defeating the Spanish. This marked the beginning of the decline of Spanish power.
An Italian Counter-Reformation sculptor and architect, his work epitomizes the Baroque style. He known for his sculpture "The Ecstasy of Saint Theresa", which features the diagonal lines and asymmetry of the Baroque period.
Peter Paul Rubens
A Flemish Counter-Reformation painter, he used rich, bold colors and diagonals in his figures to create movement (as per the Baroque style). He is known for his "Raising of the Cross".
A versatile Italian painter, whose styles changed as often as his genres and subjects. Though his methods were continually shifting and developing, he retained an interest in the study of color, which is obvious throughout his works. His most acclaimed pieces are the Poesies, a series of paintings depicting scenes of mythology, mostly from Ovid's works.
A Dutch portrait painter. He is recognizes by his loose, lively style and vibrant use of color. He portrayed people as they were, and had an uncanny ability to capture their personalities in his paintings. His style later influenced Impressionist painters.
A Dutch painter and etcher, he used light and dark in dramatic ways. His works include "The Night Watch", and well as many self-portraits and depictions of Christ.
A French painter, he specialized in Classicism during the predominately Baroque period. His use of line, symmetry and focus on perfection and general emotion were in direct contrast to his contemporaries.
A French Baroque painter, he is known for his popularization of landscapes.