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Organic chemistry is a science based on the study of

carbon compounds.

Testosterone and estradiol are male and female sex hormones, respectively, in many vertebrates. In what way(s) do these molecules differ from each other?

Testosterone and estradiol have different functional groups attached to the same carbon skeleton.

How many electron pairs does carbon share in order to complete its valence shell?

Four.

A carbon atom is most likely to form what kinds of bond(s) with other atoms?

Covalent.

Research indicates that Ibuprofen, a drug used to relieve inflammation and pain, is a mixture of two enatiomers; that is, molecules that

are mirror images of one another.

Why is it important for rugs to consist of only one enantiomeric form, rather than a mixture of aenantiomers?

Different enantiomers may have different or opposite physiological effects.

A compound contains hydroxyl groups as its predominant funtional gorup. What is a true statement about this compound?

It should dissolve in water.

What is the description of a carbonyl group?

A carbon atom joined to an oxygen by a double covalent bond.

What contains nitrogen in addition to carbon, oxygen, and hydrogen?

An amino acid such as glycine.

Which two funtional groups are always found in amino acids?

Carboxyl and amino.

A chemist wishes to make an organic molecule less acidic. What functional group should be added to the molecule in order to do so?

Amino.

How many structural isomers are possible for a substance having the molecular formula C4H10?

Two.

Glucose and fructose are

structural isomers.

What is an acidic functional group that can dissociate and release H+ into a solution?

Carboxyl.

What molecule is an alcohol?

Hydroxyl.

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