Advertisement Upgrade to remove ads

anotia

absence of pinna

atresia

closing off of ear canal

stenosis

narrowing of EAC

microtia

small ear/pinna

supernumerary hillocks

ear tags

aural discharge

ear wax, clear fluid-trauma, cloudy fluid, blood, foreign bodies

bony growths

exotoses (multiple growths), osteoma (single growth)

inflammatory conditions

otitis externa, perichondritis (wrestler's ear), furuncle (pimple)

conductive system best assessed

visually, tympanometry

tympanometry measures

tympanic membrane mobility, ME pressure, static compliance (mass, friction, stiffness), patency of PE tubes, ear canal volume

static compliance

mass - ossicles, friction - muscles and ligaments, stiffness - footplate of stapes

anamolies of ME occur with

atresia, cleft palate, microtia; often corrected by surgery

anamolies of ME include

abnormalities, fusion/absence of ossicles

malformations of the inner ear

michel aplasia (inner ear/auditory nerve fail to fully develop), mondini aplasia (incomplete development of inner/middle/outer ear), scheibe aplasia (most common, membranous portion of cochlea-stria vascularis-organ of corti)

meningitis

hearing loss noted during first 2 weeks of illness, sensorineural loss, associated with upper respiratory infections, diagnose quickly, watch carefully-->cochlear implant possible, ABR/behavioral testing

toxoplasmosis

rare, fatal, undercooked meat, premature birth, CPalsy, blindness, hydrocephaly, appear normal at birth but symptoms appear later on; 2-7/1000 women affected, 30-40% the fetus infected as well

Other.... syphilis

STD, CNS abnormalities, sensorineural hearing loss; by age 2 hearing loss shows

Rubella

viral, 50% of time hearing loss occurs, may cause heart disease, eye problems; immunizations key

CMV - cytomegalovirus

most common, harmless to most ppl, causes vision problems, seizures, death, dev/cog. delays, transmitted through breast milk; up to 10-40% of children are carriers; no known treatment

Herpes simplex virus

genital herpes/STD, mother's first outbreak during pregnancy, sensorineural loss, 50% mortality rate

ototoxicity

drugs that cause damage, but save life (aminoglycosides, chemotherapy drugs, aspirin/quinine, loop diuretics(if with other ototoxicity drugs will cause problem)

presence of OAEs

little or no conductive loss from ME abnormality; normal OHC function; with sensorineural loss = disorder is retrocochlear

absence of OAEs

with conductive loss = does not eliminate possibility of cochlear/retrocochlear loss; with sensorineural loss = confirms cochlear pathology, but doesn't rule out retrocochlear

assessment of neural system

measures of temporal and processing aspect; brain imaging; AEPs

Types of AEPs

ECoG, ABR, AMLR, ALR, P300

ECoG

patients sleeping, SP(IHCs), AP(distal portion of 8th nerve, IHC-Spiral ganglion), CM(OHCs); 1.5-2ms

ABR

2-10ms; 8th nerve; screening

AMLR

12-60ms; auditory thalamus, primary auditory cortex; awake

ALR

75-200ms, awake, auditory cortex

P300

200-600ms, APD, awake, medial temporal lobe

Please allow access to your computer’s microphone to use Voice Recording.

Having trouble? Click here for help.

We can’t access your microphone!

Click the icon above to update your browser permissions above and try again

Example:

Reload the page to try again!

Reload

Press Cmd-0 to reset your zoom

Press Ctrl-0 to reset your zoom

It looks like your browser might be zoomed in or out. Your browser needs to be zoomed to a normal size to record audio.

Please upgrade Flash or install Chrome
to use Voice Recording.

For more help, see our troubleshooting page.

Your microphone is muted

For help fixing this issue, see this FAQ.

Star this term

You can study starred terms together

NEW! Voice Recording

Create Set