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Aphelion

The place in the Earth's orbit where Earth is farthest away from the sun.

International Date Line

an imaginary line on the surface of the earth following (approximately) the 180th meridian

Latitude

Angular distance of that location south or north of the Equator. Run East and West

Longitude

The numbering system used to indicate the location of meridians drawn on a globe and measuring distance east and west of the prime meridian (0°). Run North and South

Perihelion

Orbital point nearest the sun

Prime Meridian

The meridian, designated at 0° longitude, which passes through the Royal Observatory at Greenwich, England.

Inclination of Earth's Access

23 and a half degree from the perpendicular position

Polarity

Having an indicated pole (as the distinction between positive and negative electric charges)

UTC

Universal Time Coordinated

GMT

Greenwich Mean Time. The time in that time zone encompassing the prime meridian or 0 degree longitude

GIS

Geographic Information System, A computer system that stores, organizes, analyzes, and displays geographic data.

GPS

A navigational system involving satellites and computers that can determine the latitude and longitude of a receiver on Earth by computing the time difference for signals from different satellites to reach the receiver

Isoline

Map line that connects points of equal or very similar values

Fractional Scale

Shows the numerical ratio between distances on the map and Earth's surface.

Aerial Photography

Allows geographers to see land use changing over time by comparing pictures of places from years past to current photographs.

Remote Sensing

A method of collecting data or information through the use of instruments that are physically distant from the area or object of study.

Verbal Scale

Description of scale using words "one inch equal four miles"

Conformal Map Projections

A projection that maintains proper angular relationships over the entire map; over limited areas shows the correct shapes of features shown on a map.

Equivalent Map Projections

A projection that maintains constant size relationships over the entire map.

Map Scale

Shows the ratio between distances on a map and distances on the earth

Tropic of Cancer

23.5 degrees north

Tropic of Capricorn

23.5 degrees south

March Equinox

March 22 - All locations on Earth experience 12 hours of daylight - The event that the Sun be positioned directly over the Earth's equator

Circle of Illumination

The dividing line between day and night. This circle intersects the equator, which is why daylength at the equator is evenly divided.

Lithosphere

The solid part of the earth consisting of the crust and outer mantle. Greek for Stone

Atmosphere

The mass of air surrounding the Earth. Greek for Air

Earth's Age

4.6 billion Years

Earth's Axis

Tilted 23.5 degrees from a line perpendicular from the plane of Earth's orbit

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